# 8.3: Review Problems

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1. Let (M=egin{pmatrix}
m^{1}_{1} & m^{1}_{2} & m^{1}_{3}
m^{2}_{1} & m^{2}_{2} & m^{2}_{3}
m^{3}_{1} & m^{3}_{2} & m^{3}_{3}
end{pmatrix}). For simplicity, assume that (m_{1}^{1} eq 0 eq m^{1}_{1}m^{2}_{2}-m^{2}_{1}m^{1}_{2}).

Prove that (M) is non-singular if and only if:
[
m^{1}_{1}m^{2}_{2}m^{3}_{3}
- m^{1}_{1}m^{2}_{3}m^{3}_{2}
+ m^{1}_{2}m^{2}_{3}m^{3}_{1}
- m^{1}_{2}m^{2}_{1}m^{3}_{3}
+ m^{1}_{3}m^{2}_{1}m^{3}_{2}
- m^{1}_{3}m^{2}_{2}m^{3}_{1}
eq 0
]

2.
a) What does the matrix (E^{1}_{2}=egin{pmatrix}
0 & 1 \
1 & 0
end{pmatrix}) do to (M=egin{pmatrix}
a & b
d & c
end{pmatrix}) under left multiplication? What about right multiplication?
b) Find elementary matrices (R^{1}(lambda)) and (R^{2}(lambda)) that respectively multiply rows (1) and (2) of (M) by (lambda) but otherwise leave (M) the same under left multiplication.
c) Find a matrix (S^{1}_{2}(lambda)) that adds a multiple (lambda) of row (2) to row (1) under left multiplication.

3. Let (M) be a matrix and (S^{i}_{j}M) the same matrix with rows (i) and (j) switched. Explain every line of the series of equations proving that (det M = -det (S^{i}_{j}M)).

4. Let (M') be the matrix obtained from (M) by swapping two columns (i) and (j). Show that (det M'=-det M ).

5. The scalar triple product of three vectors (u,v,w) from (Re^{3}) is (ucdot(v imes w)). Show that this product is the same as the determinant of the matrix whose columns are (u,v,w) (in that order). What happens to the scalar triple product when the factors are permuted?

6. Show that if (M) is a (3 imes 3) matrix whose third row is a sum of multiples of the other rows ((R_{3}=aR_{2}+bR_{1})) then (det M=0). Show that the same is true if one of the columns is a sum of multiples of the others.

Hi, relative newbie here but always been a Nokia user, from the early years 3310, 3650,N8,N95,Lumias,Nokia 6,Nokia 7 plus and now the 8.3. loving the new phone albeit the various bugs etc. But has anyone had any issues with the inbuilt file manager? Everytime I click on videos, file manager crashes and shuts down.. only seems to be the folders which have MP4 files in?? They play fine on the phone, but if I try and view the files in the file manager be it on the phones memory or the micro SD card the file manager crashes? Same thing happened on my 7 plus?? I've gone through my video files and none are corrupt?? Anyone else have this issue??

It sounds like another bug that will be ironed out in an update soon.

In the meantime, try another file manager from the Play Store and see if you have better luck with one of them.

## 8.3 Problems with Memory

You may pride yourself on your amazing ability to remember the birthdates and ages of all of your friends and family members, or you may be able recall vivid details of your 5th birthday party at Chuck E. Cheese’s. However, all of us have at times felt frustrated, and even embarrassed, when our memories have failed us. There are several reasons why this happens.

### Amnesia

Amnesia is the loss of long-term memory that occurs as the result of disease, physical trauma, or psychological trauma. Endel Tulving (2002) and his colleagues at the University of Toronto studied K. C. for years. K. C. suffered a traumatic head injury in a motorcycle accident and then had severe amnesia. Tulving writes,

the outstanding fact about K.C.'s mental make-up is his utter inability to remember any events, circumstances, or situations from his own life. His episodic amnesia covers his whole life, from birth to the present. The only exception is the experiences that, at any time, he has had in the last minute or two. (Tulving, 2002, p. 14)

There are two common types of amnesia: anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia (Figure 8.10). Anterograde amnesia is commonly caused by brain trauma, such as a blow to the head. With anterograde amnesia , you cannot remember new information, although you can remember information and events that happened prior to your injury. The hippocampus is usually affected (McLeod, 2011). This suggests that damage to the brain has resulted in the inability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory that is, the inability to consolidate memories.

Many people with this form of amnesia are unable to form new episodic or semantic memories, but are still able to form new procedural memories (Bayley & Squire, 2002). This was true of H. M., which was discussed earlier. The brain damage caused by his surgery resulted in anterograde amnesia. H. M. would read the same magazine over and over, having no memory of ever reading it—it was always new to him. He also could not remember people he had met after his surgery. If you were introduced to H. M. and then you left the room for a few minutes, he would not know you upon your return and would introduce himself to you again. However, when presented the same puzzle several days in a row, although he did not remember having seen the puzzle before, his speed at solving it became faster each day (because of relearning) (Corkin, 1965, 1968).

Retrograde amnesia is loss of memory for events that occurred prior to the trauma. People with retrograde amnesia cannot remember some or even all of their past. They have difficulty remembering episodic memories. What if you woke up in the hospital one day and there were people surrounding your bed claiming to be your spouse, your children, and your parents? The trouble is you don’t recognize any of them. You were in a car accident, suffered a head injury, and now have retrograde amnesia. You don’t remember anything about your life prior to waking up in the hospital. This may sound like the stuff of Hollywood movies, and Hollywood has been fascinated with the amnesia plot for nearly a century, going all the way back to the film Garden of Lies from 1915 to more recent movies such as the Jason Bourne spy thrillers. However, for real-life sufferers of retrograde amnesia, like former NFL football player Scott Bolzan, the story is not a Hollywood movie. Bolzan fell, hit his head, and deleted 46 years of his life in an instant. He is now living with one of the most extreme cases of retrograde amnesia on record.

### Memory Construction and Reconstruction

The formulation of new memories is sometimes called construction , and the process of bringing up old memories is called reconstruction . Yet as we retrieve our memories, we also tend to alter and modify them. A memory pulled from long-term storage into short-term memory is flexible. New events can be added and we can change what we think we remember about past events, resulting in inaccuracies and distortions. People may not intend to distort facts, but it can happen in the process of retrieving old memories and combining them with new memories (Roediger & DeSoto, 2015).

#### Suggestibility

When someone witnesses a crime, that person’s memory of the details of the crime is very important in catching the suspect. Because memory is so fragile, witnesses can be easily (and often accidentally) misled due to the problem of suggestibility. Suggestibility describes the effects of misinformation from external sources that leads to the creation of false memories. In the fall of 2002, a sniper in the DC area shot people at a gas station, leaving Home Depot, and walking down the street. These attacks went on in a variety of places for over three weeks and resulted in the deaths of ten people. During this time, as you can imagine, people were terrified to leave their homes, go shopping, or even walk through their neighborhoods. Police officers and the FBI worked frantically to solve the crimes, and a tip hotline was set up. Law enforcement received over 140,000 tips, which resulted in approximately 35,000 possible suspects (Newseum, n.d.).

Most of the tips were dead ends, until a white van was spotted at the site of one of the shootings. The police chief went on national television with a picture of the white van. After the news conference, several other eyewitnesses called to say that they too had seen a white van fleeing from the scene of the shooting. At the time, there were more than 70,000 white vans in the area. Police officers, as well as the general public, focused almost exclusively on white vans because they believed the eyewitnesses. Other tips were ignored. When the suspects were finally caught, they were driving a blue sedan.

As illustrated by this example, we are vulnerable to the power of suggestion, simply based on something we see on the news. Or we can claim to remember something that in fact is only a suggestion someone made. It is the suggestion that is the cause of the false memory.

#### Eyewitness Misidentification

Even though memory and the process of reconstruction can be fragile, police officers, prosecutors, and the courts often rely on eyewitness identification and testimony in the prosecution of criminals. However, faulty eyewitness identification and testimony can lead to wrongful convictions (Figure 8.11).

How does this happen? In 1984, Jennifer Thompson, then a 22-year-old college student in North Carolina, was brutally raped at knifepoint. As she was being raped, she tried to memorize every detail of her rapist’s face and physical characteristics, vowing that if she survived, she would help get him convicted. After the police were contacted, a composite sketch was made of the suspect, and Jennifer was shown six photos. She chose two, one of which was of Ronald Cotton. After looking at the photos for 4–5 minutes, she said, “Yeah. This is the one,” and then she added, “I think this is the guy.” When questioned about this by the detective who asked, “You’re sure? Positive?” She said that it was him. Then she asked the detective if she did OK, and he reinforced her choice by telling her she did great. These kinds of unintended cues and suggestions by police officers can lead witnesses to identify the wrong suspect. The district attorney was concerned about her lack of certainty the first time, so she viewed a lineup of seven men. She said she was trying to decide between numbers 4 and 5, finally deciding that Cotton, number 5, “Looks most like him.” He was 22 years old.

By the time the trial began, Jennifer Thompson had absolutely no doubt that she was raped by Ronald Cotton. She testified at the court hearing, and her testimony was compelling enough that it helped convict him. How did she go from, “I think it’s the guy” and it “Looks most like him,” to such certainty? Gary Wells and Deah Quinlivan (2009) assert it’s suggestive police identification procedures, such as stacking lineups to make the defendant stand out, telling the witness which person to identify, and confirming witnesses choices by telling them “Good choice,” or “You picked the guy.”

After Cotton was convicted of the rape, he was sent to prison for life plus 50 years. After 4 years in prison, he was able to get a new trial. Jennifer Thompson once again testified against him. This time Ronald Cotton was given two life sentences. After serving 11 years in prison, DNA evidence finally demonstrated that Ronald Cotton did not commit the rape, was innocent, and had served over a decade in prison for a crime he did not commit.

Ronald Cotton’s story, unfortunately, is not unique. There are also people who were convicted and placed on death row, who were later exonerated. The Innocence Project is a non-profit group that works to exonerate falsely convicted people, including those convicted by eyewitness testimony. To learn more, you can visit http://www.innocenceproject.org.

### Dig Deeper

#### Preserving Eyewitness Memory: The Elizabeth Smart Case

Contrast the Cotton case with what happened in the Elizabeth Smart case. When Elizabeth was 14 years old and fast asleep in her bed at home, she was abducted at knifepoint. Her nine-year-old sister, Mary Katherine, was sleeping in the same bed and watched, terrified, as her beloved older sister was abducted. Mary Katherine was the sole eyewitness to this crime and was very fearful. In the coming weeks, the Salt Lake City police and the FBI proceeded with caution with Mary Katherine. They did not want to implant any false memories or mislead her in any way. They did not show her police line-ups or push her to do a composite sketch of the abductor. They knew if they corrupted her memory, Elizabeth might never be found. For several months, there was little or no progress on the case. Then, about 4 months after the kidnapping, Mary Katherine first recalled that she had heard the abductor’s voice prior to that night (he had worked exactly one day as a handyman at the family’s home) and then she was able to name the person whose voice it was. The family contacted the press and others recognized him—after a total of nine months, the suspect was caught and Elizabeth Smart was returned to her family.

#### The Misinformation Effect

Cognitive psychologist Elizabeth Loftus has conducted extensive research on memory. She has studied false memories as well as recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse. Loftus also developed the misinformation effect paradigm , which holds that after exposure to additional and possibly inaccurate information, a person may misremember the original event.

According to Loftus, an eyewitness’s memory of an event is very flexible due to the misinformation effect. To test this theory, Loftus and John Palmer (1974) asked 45 U.S. college students to estimate the speed of cars using different forms of questions (Figure 8.12). The participants were shown films of car accidents and were asked to play the role of the eyewitness and describe what happened. They were asked, “About how fast were the cars going when they (smashed, collided, bumped, hit, contacted) each other?” The participants estimated the speed of the cars based on the verb used.

Participants who heard the word “smashed” estimated that the cars were traveling at a much higher speed than participants who heard the word “contacted.” The implied information about speed, based on the verb they heard, had an effect on the participants’ memory of the accident. In a follow-up one week later, participants were asked if they saw any broken glass (none was shown in the accident pictures). Participants who had been in the “smashed” group were more than twice as likely to indicate that they did remember seeing glass. Loftus and Palmer demonstrated that a leading question encouraged them to not only remember the cars were going faster, but to also falsely remember that they saw broken glass.

#### Controversies over Repressed and Recovered Memories

Other researchers have described how whole events, not just words, can be falsely recalled, even when they did not happen. The idea that memories of traumatic events could be repressed has been a theme in the field of psychology, beginning with Sigmund Freud, and the controversy surrounding the idea continues today.

Recall of false autobiographical memories is called false memory syndrome . This syndrome has received a lot of publicity, particularly as it relates to memories of events that do not have independent witnesses—often the only witnesses to the abuse are the perpetrator and the victim (e.g., sexual abuse).

On one side of the debate are those who have recovered memories of childhood abuse years after it occurred. These researchers argue that some children’s experiences have been so traumatizing and distressing that they must lock those memories away in order to lead some semblance of a normal life. They believe that repressed memories can be locked away for decades and later recalled intact through hypnosis and guided imagery techniques (Devilly, 2007).

Research suggests that having no memory of childhood sexual abuse is quite common in adults. For instance, one large-scale study conducted by John Briere and Jon Conte (1993) revealed that 59% of 450 men and women who were receiving treatment for sexual abuse that had occurred before age 18 had forgotten their experiences. Ross Cheit (2007) suggested that repressing these memories created psychological distress in adulthood. The Recovered Memory Project was created so that victims of childhood sexual abuse can recall these memories and allow the healing process to begin (Cheit, 2007 Devilly, 2007).

On the other side, Loftus has challenged the idea that individuals can repress memories of traumatic events from childhood, including sexual abuse, and then recover those memories years later through therapeutic techniques such as hypnosis, guided visualization, and age regression.

Loftus is not saying that childhood sexual abuse doesn’t happen, but she does question whether or not those memories are accurate, and she is skeptical of the questioning process used to access these memories, given that even the slightest suggestion from the therapist can lead to misinformation effects. For example, researchers Stephen Ceci and Maggie Brucks (1993, 1995) asked three-year-old children to use an anatomically correct doll to show where their pediatricians had touched them during an exam. Fifty-five percent of the children pointed to the genital/anal area on the dolls, even when they had not received any form of genital exam.

Ever since Loftus published her first studies on the suggestibility of eyewitness testimony in the 1970s, social scientists, police officers, therapists, and legal practitioners have been aware of the flaws in interview practices. Consequently, steps have been taken to decrease suggestibility of witnesses. One way is to modify how witnesses are questioned. When interviewers use neutral and less leading language, children more accurately recall what happened and who was involved (Goodman, 2006 Pipe, 1996 Pipe, Lamb, Orbach, & Esplin, 2004). Another change is in how police lineups are conducted. It’s recommended that a blind photo lineup be used. This way the person administering the lineup doesn’t know which photo belongs to the suspect, minimizing the possibility of giving leading cues. Additionally, judges in some states now inform jurors about the possibility of misidentification. Judges can also suppress eyewitness testimony if they deem it unreliable.

### Forgetting

“I’ve a grand memory for forgetting,” quipped Robert Louis Stevenson. Forgetting refers to loss of information from long-term memory. We all forget things, like a loved one’s birthday, someone’s name, or where we put our car keys. As you’ve come to see, memory is fragile, and forgetting can be frustrating and even embarrassing. But why do we forget? To answer this question, we will look at several perspectives on forgetting.

#### Encoding Failure

Sometimes memory loss happens before the actual memory process begins, which is encoding failure. We can’t remember something if we never stored it in our memory in the first place. This would be like trying to find a book on your e-reader that you never actually purchased and downloaded. Often, in order to remember something, we must pay attention to the details and actively work to process the information (effortful encoding). Lots of times we don’t do this. For instance, think of how many times in your life you’ve seen a penny. Can you accurately recall what the front of a U.S. penny looks like? When researchers Raymond Nickerson and Marilyn Adams (1979) asked this question, they found that most Americans don’t know which one it is. The reason is most likely encoding failure. Most of us never encode the details of the penny. We only encode enough information to be able to distinguish it from other coins. If we don’t encode the information, then it’s not in our long-term memory, so we will not be able to remember it.

#### Memory Errors

Psychologist Daniel Schacter (2001), a well-known memory researcher, offers seven ways our memories fail us. He calls them the seven sins of memory and categorizes them into three groups: forgetting, distortion, and intrusion (Table 8.1).

Sin Type Description Example
Transience Forgetting Accessibility of memory decreases over time Forget events that occurred long ago
absentmindedness Forgetting Forgetting caused by lapses in attention Forget where your phone is
Blocking Forgetting Accessibility of information is temporarily blocked Tip of the tongue
Misattribution Distortion Source of memory is confused Recalling a dream memory as a waking memory
Suggestibility Distortion False memories Result from leading questions
Bias Distortion Memories distorted by current belief system Align memories to current beliefs
Persistence Intrusion Inability to forget undesirable memories Traumatic events

Let’s look at the first sin of the forgetting errors: transience , which means that memories can fade over time. Here’s an example of how this happens. Nathan’s English teacher has assigned his students to read the novel To Kill a Mockingbird. Nathan comes home from school and tells his mom he has to read this book for class. “Oh, I loved that book!” she says. Nathan asks her what the book is about, and after some hesitation she says, “Well . . . I know I read the book in high school, and I remember that one of the main characters is named Scout, and her father is an attorney, but I honestly don’t remember anything else.” Nathan wonders if his mother actually read the book, and his mother is surprised she can’t recall the plot. What is going on here is storage decay: unused information tends to fade with the passage of time.

In 1885, German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus analyzed the process of memorization. First, he memorized lists of nonsense syllables. Then he measured how much he learned (retained) when he attempted to relearn each list. He tested himself over different periods of time from 20 minutes later to 30 days later. The result is his famous forgetting curve (Figure 8.14). Due to storage decay, an average person will lose 50% of the memorized information after 20 minutes and 70% of the information after 24 hours (Ebbinghaus, 1885/1964). Your memory for new information decays quickly and then eventually levels out.

Are you constantly losing your cell phone? Have you ever driven back home to make sure you turned off the stove? Have you ever walked into a room for something, but forgotten what it was? You probably answered yes to at least one, if not all, of these examples—but don’t worry, you are not alone. We are all prone to committing the memory error known as absentmindedness , which describes lapses in memory caused by breaks in attention or our focus being somewhere else.

Cynthia, a psychologist, recalls a time when she recently committed the memory error of absentmindedness.

When I was completing court-ordered psychological evaluations, each time I went to the court, I was issued a temporary identification card with a magnetic strip which would open otherwise locked doors. As you can imagine, in a courtroom, this identification is valuable and important and no one wanted it to be lost or be picked up by a criminal. At the end of the day, I would hand in my temporary identification. One day, when I was almost done with an evaluation, my daughter’s day care called and said she was sick and needed to be picked up. It was flu season, I didn’t know how sick she was, and I was concerned. I finished up the evaluation in the next ten minutes, packed up my briefcase, and rushed to drive to my daughter’s day care. After I picked up my daughter, I could not remember if I had handed back my identification or if I had left it sitting out on a table. I immediately called the court to check. It turned out that I had handed back my identification. Why could I not remember that? (personal communication, September 5, 2013)

When have you experienced absentmindedness?

“I just streamed this movie called Oblivion, and it had that famous actor in it. Oh, what’s his name? He’s been in all of those movies, like The Shawshank Redemption and The Dark Knight trilogy. I think he’s even won an Oscar. Oh gosh, I can picture his face in my mind, and hear his distinctive voice, but I just can’t think of his name! This is going to bug me until I can remember it!” This particular error can be so frustrating because you have the information right on the tip of your tongue. Have you ever experienced this? If so, you’ve committed the error known as blocking: you can’t access stored information (Figure 8.15).

Now let’s take a look at the three errors of distortion: misattribution, suggestibility, and bias. Misattribution happens when you confuse the source of your information. Let’s say Alejandra was dating Lucia and they saw the first Hobbit movie together. Then they broke up and Alejandra saw the second Hobbit movie with someone else. Later that year, Alejandra and Lucia get back together. One day, they are discussing how the Hobbit books and movies are different and Alejandra says to Lucia, “I loved watching the second movie with you and seeing you jump out of your seat during that super scary part.” When Lucia responded with a puzzled and then angry look, Alejandra realized she’d committed the error of misattribution.

What if someone is a victim of rape shortly after watching a television program? Is it possible that the victim could actually blame the rape on the person she saw on television because of misattribution? This is exactly what happened to Donald Thomson.

Australian eyewitness expert Donald Thomson appeared on a live TV discussion about the unreliability of eyewitness memory. He was later arrested, placed in a lineup and identified by a victim as the man who had raped her. The police charged Thomson although the rape had occurred at the time he was on TV. They dismissed his alibi that he was in plain view of a TV audience and in the company of the other discussants, including an assistant commissioner of police. . . . Eventually, the investigators discovered that the rapist had attacked the woman as she was watching TV—the very program on which Thomson had appeared. Authorities eventually cleared Thomson. The woman had confused the rapist's face with the face that she had seen on TV. (Baddeley, 2004, p. 133)

The second distortion error is suggestibility. Suggestibility is similar to misattribution, since it also involves false memories, but it’s different. With misattribution you create the false memory entirely on your own, which is what the victim did in the Donald Thomson case above. With suggestibility, it comes from someone else, such as a therapist or police interviewer asking leading questions of a witness during an interview.

Memories can also be affected by bias , which is the final distortion error. Schacter (2001) says that your feelings and view of the world can actually distort your memory of past events. There are several types of bias:

• Stereotypical bias involves racial and gender biases. For example, when Asian American and European American research participants were presented with a list of names, they more frequently incorrectly remembered typical African American names such as Jamal and Tyrone to be associated with the occupation basketball player, and they more frequently incorrectly remembered typical White names such as Greg and Howard to be associated with the occupation of politician (Payne, Jacoby, & Lambert, 2004).
• Egocentric bias involves enhancing our memories of the past (Payne et al., 2004). Did you really score the winning goal in that big soccer match, or did you just assist?
• Hindsight bias happens when we think an outcome was inevitable after the fact. This is the “I knew it all along” phenomenon. The reconstructive nature of memory contributes to hindsight bias (Carli, 1999). We remember untrue events that seem to confirm that we knew the outcome all along.

Have you ever had a song play over and over in your head? How about a memory of a traumatic event, something you really do not want to think about? When you keep remembering something, to the point where you can’t “get it out of your head” and it interferes with your ability to concentrate on other things, it is called persistence . It’s Schacter’s seventh and last memory error. It’s actually a failure of our memory system because we involuntarily recall unwanted memories, particularly unpleasant ones (Figure 8.16). For instance, you witness a horrific car accident on the way to work one morning, and you can’t concentrate on work because you keep remembering the scene.

#### Interference

Sometimes information is stored in our memory, but for some reason it is inaccessible. This is known as interference, and there are two types: proactive interference and retroactive interference (Figure 8.17). Have you ever gotten a new phone number or moved to a new address, but right after you tell people the old (and wrong) phone number or address? When the new year starts, do you find you accidentally write the previous year? These are examples of proactive interference : when old information hinders the recall of newly learned information. Retroactive interference happens when information learned more recently hinders the recall of older information. For example, this week you are studying about memory and learn about the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. Next week you study lifespan development and learn about Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, but thereafter have trouble remembering Ebbinghaus's work because you can only remember Erickson's theory.

## V10 durability

The Dodge V10 is based off of the 318 V8. That motor has enjoyed a famous reputation for near bullet proof reliability and according to my Dodge sources, the V10 has been equally reliable. As to fuel consumption, based on the V10 owners I know the difference between 11.6 and 11.7 is so miniscule that it's more meaningful to consider other attributes when deciding on which truck you'd want. The Dodge V10s will get in the same range as the Ford V10.

As to the rest of the truck, I don't know. My company has both Ford and Dodge pick-ups and I would say the Dodge's ('98-01s) were more reliable overall. The early RAMs ('94-'96s) had some paint problems. If you look at the TSBs for both Dodge and Ford you'll get a more credible picture of reliability of the body series. I know of two people with the SuperDuty series that are very unhappy, but overall the Ford and the Dodge are both pretty good trucks. I don't think you'll go wrong with either one.

Chrysler will discontinue the current V10, mostly because the new Hemi is more than the equal of the V10 in horsepower and pretty close in torque as well. It is rumored, however, that larger displacement versions of the new Hemi as well as a V10 version is being planned for future release.

## 3.8L Jeep Wrangler JK Engine Problems

Modern automobiles are supposed to be the best representation of what we can achieve and have learned over the 100-plus years of wheels on the road. While 100,000 miles used to be the break-over point for where people would grow weary of their vehicle, these days it’s not uncommon to see rigs still running the roadways with well over 250k on the clock. So, why is it that we keep hearing tales about 3.8L engine troubles on JK’s with less than 100,000 miles?

When the 3.8L V-6 was announced that it was being picked as the new power source for the Jeep Wrangler in 2007, few were singing its praise. The previous-generation Wrangler’s 4.0L inline-six engine wasn’t perfect but had many things going for it (most notably was its longevity). Conversely, there wasn’t anything for the 3.8L to hang its hat on. The 202 hp and 237 lb-ft of torque figures were more than the outgoing Wrangler, but it made these figures much higher in the rpm range. The result was a weak low-end power feel (something that was always a strong suit of the 4.0L).

The fact that the 3.8L was sourced from the Chrysler pool of mini-van engines only added to the ridicule. Now that the 3.8L JK has been out for some time, we are starting to see many nearing the 200,000-mile range. With years past, we are also noticing that the 3.8L has gained a reputation for not going the distance. By far the biggest complaint we are aware of is excessive oil consumption. Here at Jp, we’ve had two ’07 JKs with 3.8L engines die with just over 100,000 miles on the odometer. Both were consuming oil rapidly (in the end it was two-quarts to every 100 miles!) Sure, we might be harder than the average wheeler on our Jeeps, but a quick interweb search will reveal that we are not the only ones with 3.8L troubles.

The 3.8L engine isn’t all doom and gloom. In fact, for every person we’ve encountered with an oil-burning or chattering 3.8L, we encounter at least two with no issues. We’re no rocket doctors, but it’s pretty clear that the 3.8L won’t be taking the reliability title from the cherished 4.0L anytime soon. To get a better breakdown of what goes wrong with the 3.8L, we’ve put together a list of common trouble spots. Some spots are easy fixes, while others may have you looking for a new powerplant. Before you go off the deep end with your 3.8L, our list is definitely worth a look.

They tend to leak between the lower intake manifold and cylinder heads. In extreme cases, the intake will reqire replacement due to metal erosion. The problem is common because people still haven't figured out that "permanent" isn't "forever", and the coolant requires replacement every 2 years due to the corrosion inhibitors becoming depleted.

Mitchell Mechanical Labor Estimating Guide times:
1984-96 Ciera
where A.C. interferes. .3
where Air Pump interferes. .5
where Cruise Control interferes .. .2

Alcan is right about metal erosion and gasket leaks. Also right about the coolant. What I do now is siphon the coolant overflow tank empty every 2 months or so and top it up with fresh coolant again. In this way the cooling system is getting a fresh transfusion all the time. It's easy and cheaper in the long run and very simple to do. Just take a length of small hose, prime it with water, ( don't suck it) and dunk the one end into the overflow tank and the other into a suitable container at ground level and drain the tank. Just be sure to get the right coolant for your car and mix as per instructions.

By the way, Dex-Cool is available at K-Mart and similar outlets at very reasonable prices. Don't buy it from the dealers.

My son once had a German built Chevy Chevair 1.8L. It had the same type of formed rocker arms used by GM today. These had a tendency to break after high mileage and would prevent that particular valve from opening. In one case an exhaust valve rocker broke and the exhaust valve was not opening. That cylinder would fire but, on the exhaust stroke, the gas had nowhere to go and was blown past the piston and into the crankcase. This happened at highway speed. So it was with much bucking and snorting that he managed to chug home a few miles further on.

I'm not suggesting that's what Grand Prix's fault was but, while we were on the subject of valves.

I just bought a used 97 Venture (130K km) and while changing the oil, the dealer tech told me he could see evidence of coolant condensed on the filler cap. They suggested it was the intake manifold gasket. Is this the same problem as for the 3.1's covered earlier in this discussion? Is it the upper or lower manifold gasket? Is this a common defect with this series of engines, or is it a symptom of poor maintenance? I've heard that coolant replacement is the culprit, but isn't this dexcool stuff good for 5 years?

rwinger

Sorry to take so long to get back to you re mixing of antifreeze types. Here's a quote from GM:

NOTICE:
When adding coolant it is important that you use DEX-COOL (orange colored, silicate-free) coolant meeting GM Specification 6277M.
If silicated coolant is added to the system, premature engine, heater core or radiator corrosion may result. In addition, the engine coolant will have to be changed sooner -- at 30,000 miles or 24 months, whichever occurs first.

The problem is that silicated (conventional) coolant can damage aluminum parts such as the intake manifold and cylinder heads on 2.8's, 3.1's, etc. Re your question as to whether this is common on these GM engines: yes, very. That's why they had to develop the silicate free coolant.

My 96 Grand Prix also has a 3.1 and as you can guess the intake manifold gasket is bad. For the past few months I have been adding dexcool about every two weeks. After reading through your previous posts I'm even angrier with GM for recognizing this as a problem and then charging ridiculous amounts to have the problem fixed.

I was quoted by a dealership that it would cost upwards of \$700 to have this problem fixed. I think I'll get a quote from another mechanic before I do anything.

The part that really upsets me is that the entire coolant system is advertised as "no coolant change" for 100,000 miles. What could have caused the gasket to go bad? I never added dexcool coolant to the system until I noticed it was leaking. I have never considered buying a foreign car, but it's expensive repairs like this that make me wonder if its worth sticking with GM cars.

I now know I'm not the only one out there with this problem. Thanks for the insight.

I just read these posts a couple of days ago and am responding to the earlier ones on overheating. I have a 91 Grand Am, my brother has a 91 Grand Am and my father has a 90 Chevy van. We've all had the same problems with overheating. GM seems to have had problems back in early 90's but apparently still are (up to '97 anyway).

Anyway, my father put a fan in the engine so I could turn off AC and still have a fan on to cool off the engine in stop and go traffic, red lights, etc. He put a switch inside the car so I can turn the fan on and off as needed. I don't know how much that would cost if you took it to a mechanic. It does help though.

I'm buying a new car soon and have been considering the Impala and Taurus. After reading car reviews on Taurus's as well, I may just flip a coin on which one to buy! The Impala owners seem to be satisfied customers anyway.

Just about everyone in various forums I've read all recommend the Impala. The gasket problem really had me concerned though. The forum on Taurus problems was so long I couldn't read them all. Their main problem seems to be the transmission. I like the Impala better anyway. There has been a lot of dialogue on the Impala XI forum under Sedans. It may be quite informative for people having these problems. The posts were over this past weekend - mostly by platour and bearmer if anyone is interested in reading them.

I hope you get your overheating problems worked out. I've been dealing with it for 10 years with this Grand Am!

I have a '92 Corsica 3.1. Decided to replace heater hoses. They are buried low on the firewall. I got the upper one going back to the engine from up top-no problem. The two going to the heater I think I can get from under the car. The one coming out of the engine is 1" below the one going back to the engine and It's blocked from the one pipe from above. I think other than a bur grinder to slit it (hate to do- risky) a locking Vise Grip C Clamp appears to be the only option as it sill allow the throat to get around the upper pipe. Any other Ideas. Alcan - have you done this nightmare job. Back three spark plugs are easy compared to this.

I noticed some seepage from my 96 Chevy Lumina 3.1. What I did was to tighten the intake down.
I think it loosens up after a while. (116,000 and still uses no oil)
My advise is to torque it down, so far it has worked for me. It uses a 10mm socket and/or wrench.
Also in the owners manual it said when you change coolant to put a stop leak additive, I. E. Bar's Leak Stop.

Has the problem been fixed in later model versions of the engine?

I had the same contamination in coolant tank of my 98 Chevrolet Malibu with 3.1l V-6 engine. I would say even much more pronounced.

Recently asked for coolant system service at my local Firestone, because of the sediment and because I had to add a quart of 50/50 DexCool solution every tree months. Was not sure if this is an evaporation or small leak, even more that the Malibu manual states it is normal to add coolant up to four times a year.

The mechanic told me DexCool does not need be replaced before 100-150,000 miles. I told them about the need to add coolant. They started from pressure test and found a leak on the top surface of the intake manifold gasket. Now the car is in shop, undergoing the gasket replacement.

Had the the reddish sediment in the coolant tank from the very beginning, when I bought the car used with 15k miles. Serviced it first at dealer, than at a very good local Firestone shop after the original warranty expired. They added coolant every 3 months. But nobody told me before this sediment is not normal.

## LG revists tablets with G Pad 8.3 (pictures)

Design
The device measures 8.54-inches tall, 4.98-inches wide, and 0.33-inches thick. Positioned vertically, it's easy to hold with one hand, which surprised me given how small my grip is. My CNET UK colleague, Andrew Hoyle, was even able to slide it into his inner blazer pocket, but you can forget about it fitting inside any jean pockets (which the smaller Nexus is known to be able to do). In addition, it weighs 0.74 pounds (or 11.8 ounces), so its relatively lightweight. You can easily throw it in a small shoulder bag and it wouldn't feel like a huge drag on your shoulders.

Though it makes the G Pad a bit more slippery, I like the device's aluminum back panel. In fact, I prefer it over the Samsung Galaxy Tab 3's glossy backside, which traps fingerprints easily. I also like how the tablet feels dense, without it being too heavy. Both characteristics give the G Pad a polished look.

Weight in pounds 0.74 0.66 0.7 0.68
Width in inches (landscape) 8.5 7.8 8.2 7.9
Height in inches 5 4.5 4.8 5.3
Depth in inches 0.33 0.34 0.27 0.28
Side bezel width in inches (landscape) 0.63 1 0.75 0.81

But while its build quality is solid, the device's plastic trimmings dampen its overall aesthetic, and compared to other small tablets, the G Pad just doesn't look as chic.

For example, although CNET's Eric Franklin prefers the stylings of the 2012 Nexus 7 over the 2013 edition, the most recent Nexus is still much sleeker than the G Pad, with its starkly sharp corners and black all-matte construction. And even though I don't like the Tab 3's backside, its steep, metallic-trim edges look elegant. Lastly, the Apple iPad Mini's alluminum body and trimming definitely give the Mini a more high-end, refined aspect.

/> The G Pad features a stylish aluminum backside, but stale plastic trimmings. Josh Miller/CNET

On the device's top edge you'll find a 3.5mm headphone jack, a microSD card slot that's expandable up to 64GB, and an infrared blaster (more on this later). The right houses a sleep/power button and volume rocker. At the bottom is a Micro-USB port for charging and transferring files.

Above the display is a 1.3-megapixel front-facing camera. On the back is 5-megapixel camera, which sits to the left of two narrow slits for the audio speaker.

/> Verizon's 4G LTE model comes in black. Josh Miller/CNET

Software features
The device runs LG's Optimus 3.0 user interface, and it introduces a new function called QPair. This enables you to connect your G Pad to your smartphone via Bluetooth. You can see when you're getting an incoming call, hang up on a call, or respond to a call with a text--all directly through the tablet.

QPair also allows you to view the last webpage you were looking at on your handset, or the last app you had open (as long as the app is also loaded in the G Pad) with a little popup sticker that appears on your screen. The tablet can receive SNS notifications from your smartphone on its own status bar, and any notes written in the G Pad's QuickMemo app (more on that later) can be automatically saved in your handset's gallery.

Though QPair is already preloaded as an app on the tablet, you'll need to go to the Google Play Store and download it on your smartphone in order to initiate pairing. The good news is that your handset can be any Android phone, as long as it runs 4.1 Jelly Bean or later.

/> QPair enables users to view an incoming phone call on the G Pad (left), and reply to it with a text message as well (right). Lynn La/CNET

Using LG's current flagship, the G2, I tied the two devices together with QPair. Setup was similar to joining any two gadgets through Bluetooth, and the whole process was easy enough. However, I did have to update my G Pad's QPair app off the bat, and I could only update it through another LG app called Update Center (which is also preloaded).

In addition, QPair allows users to activate Wi-Fi hotspotting, so your tablet can access the Internet through your phone's data connection. However, this function only works with certain handsets and carrier plans, and my G2 on AT&T's network was not compatible for whatever reason. Setting up a mobile hotspot through Settings worked fine though.

Aside from QPair, the G Pad doesn't have any new standalone UI features that I didn't already see on the G2. However, some functions have certainly benefited from the tablet's bigger screen. One is QuickMemo, LG's signature note-taking app, which lets you jot down notes and doodles directly onto whatever your screen is displaying at the moment, or on a virtual memo pad. (LG also added two new overlays: one is a papyrus-esque background and the other mimics that of steam creeping up against the glass.)

/> The QPair popup sticker on the right side of my tablet's screen indicates that Flipboard was the last app I accessed on my handset (left). On the right are smartphone notifications appearing on the G Pad's status bar. Lynn La/CNET

You can launch QuickMemo by sliding your finger up from the bottom edge of the screen, tapping its icon on the notifications shade, or opening the app. Though its been around since last year's Optimus Vu 5-inch phablet, the app shines on the 8.3-inch display. Drawing and writing come much easier with all that space, but keep in mind that the G Pad, QuickMemo, and a common stylus all pale in comparison to Samsung's pricier Galaxy Note 8, S Note app, and S Pen in terms of productivity features and functionality. Still, with the G Pad, QuickMemo has become more useful and even fun to use.

Other features that take advantage of the tablet's form factor are the writing recognition software integrated in the LG keyboard, and QSlide. This multitasking function overlays apps like the video player, the calculator, and the browser while you browse through your device and access other apps. You can resize QSlide windows, too, and adjust its transparency.

There's also Slide Aside, which lets you pull up and access three apps of your choosing. Back on the G2, I found that swiping three fingers across the display to engage this function was a little awkward and unintuitive. And while the latter still stands, the gesture doesn't feel as awkward on the G Pad. Due to the larger screen, the motion feels more coordinated, less clunky--like I'm not clumsily cramming and dragging the majority of my hand across a small screen.

Additional UI add-ons include QuickRemote, which turns the tablet into a universal remote for things like TVs, DVD players, and projectors using the IR blaster up top. KnockOn lets you wake up and put to sleep the device by double-tapping the touch screen. And multi-user allows you to add up to eight different accounts to your G Pad so that other users can use the tablet without disturbing your apps, settings, or preferences.

/> QuickMemo's new steam overlay (left) and the handwriting recognition feature on the LG keyboard. Lynn La/CNET

Lastly, there's Voice Mate, aka: LG's version of Samsung's S Voice or Apple's Siri. Powered by Maluuba, you can ask the app to check the weather, or search the Web by either opening the Voice Mate app, or swiping from the bottom edge of the screen.

The tablet runs Android 4.2.2 Jelly Bean. While this is a common OS version for a mobile device to launch with, it's still a tad disappointing not to see the latest Android software on here. Especially since KitKat is due out any day now, and the G Pad's most obvious competition, the Nexus 7, ships with Android 4.3.

You'll find your standard handful of Google apps included such as Chrome, Gmail, Plus, Maps with Navigation, and portals to the Play Store: Books, Games, Magazines, Movies and TV, and Music, Hangouts, G+ Photos, and YouTube.

Basic task-managing apps include a clock with alarm functions, a calculator, a calendar, native browser and e-mail clients, a notebook, a memo pad, a to-do list, a voice recorder, a news and weather app, and a dictionary. You'll also get the mobile office suite, Polaris Office 5, MiraCast, a video editor, a language translator, and the rather mysterious/invasive Life Square app, which keeps track of your photos, videos, voice recordings, and social networking posts.

Hardware features
The Wi-Fi only tablet has a quad-core 1.7GHz Snapdragon 600 processor, while Verizon's variant has a 1.5GHz Snapdragon 600 processor. The G Pad also has a Qualcomm Adreno 320 GPU, 2GB of RAM, and 16GB of internal storage. It also supports 802.11 a/b/g/n (2.4 and 5GHz) Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 4.0 LE. You'll also get a gyroscope and an accelerometer.

/> With a quad-core Snapdragon 600 CPU and an Adreno 320 GPU, it's all smooth sailing (err, jet skiing) with Riptide GP 2. Josh Miller/CNET

Performance
The Corning glass HD IPS touchscreen has a 1,920x1,200-pixel resolution and 273ppi. The display is not only responsive and sensitive to the touch, but also crisp and sharp. I also think it's a great size for watching movies and playing games. After using it for a while, the "smallness" of the Nexus' 7-inch screen is strikingly apparent.

However, when viewing a swatch of white on a webpage, I was surprised by how dim the G Pad was. In comparison, the Nexus 7 lead the way in terms of brightness and the purity of the white hue, with the iPad Mini coming in at a close second, and then the Galaxy Tab 3. The G Pad, though, trailed behind. Its white swatch looked almost greyed-out, and when I viewed an HD video side-by-side with all four tablets, the G Pad was notably dimmer than the others.

On a better note, when I looked at an all-black swatch, the G Pad displayed it relatively well. Again, the Nexus 7 outdid the competition by showing the starkest and deepest shade, but the G Pad and Mini followed narrowly behind. Unfortunately, the same black patch on the Tab 3 appeared a bit glazed with grey.

Aside from its dimness though, the G Pad's display is, in general, great. I wasn't kidding about it being sharp it has a wide viewing angle, it's easy to view outdoors in sunlight, and text and menu icons look smooth.

Maximum brightness 289 cd/m2 570 cd/m2 395 cd/m2 399 cd/m2
Maximum black level 0.24 cd/m2 0.44 cd/m2 0.39 cd/m2 0.49 cd/m2
Maximum contrast ratio 1,204:1 1,295:1 1,021:1 814:1
Pixels per inch 273ppi 323ppi 189ppi 163ppi

When it comes to small but necessary tasks, the tablet did have a couple of rare hiccups. For instance, it sometimes took a few moments too long to switch from landscape to portrait mode and vice versa, and there were times when I'd return to the home page and the app icons didn't immediately appear. These moments were few and far between, however, and for the most part the G Pad executes actions swiftly and smoothly.

Unlocking the screen, swiping through the home pages and app drawer, and calling up the keyboard were a breeze. More complicated tasks, like playing the graphics-intensive game Riptide GP 2, went off without a hitch as well. During gameplay, I saw impressively high frame rates and smooth graphics that were sharp and fine. Performance was also reliable the app didn't stutter or freeze at any time.

## Urban versus Rural Residence

Where we live also makes a difference for our likelihood of committing crime. We saw earlier that big cities have a much higher homicide rate than small towns. This trend exists for violent crime and property crime more generally. Urban areas have high crime rates in part because they are poor, but poverty by itself does not completely explain the urban-rural difference in crime, since many rural areas are poor as well. A key factor that explains the higher crime rates of urban areas is their greater population density (Stark 1987). When many people live close together, they come into contact with one another more often. This fact means that teenagers and young adults have more peers to influence them to commit crime, and it also means that potential criminals have more targets (people and homes) for their criminal activity. Urban areas also have many bars, convenience stores, and other businesses that can become targets for potential criminals, and bars, taverns, and other settings for drinking can obviously become settings where tempers flare and violence ensues.

## Hardware

### Build Quality and Design

This is my first dance with an LG tablet. I've used LG phones (the Nexus 4 has been my main phone since release, though I'm not sure that can be considered a "true" LG phone), so I was interested to see how well the company can put out a large-screened device.

The build quality is outstanding &ndash it's very well put together and feels extremely solid. The back of the unit is comprised of a thin piece of aluminum, which not only gives it a premium feel, but also looks great. The top and bottom pieces are plastic, though they don't feel necessarily out of place or look bad butted up against the aluminum backing &ndash it all has a nice flow to it. The speakers are in an awkward place: up against the right side (when in portrait mode). This kind of makes sense when you use the device in landscape, but they're still on the back which is always a stupid place for speakers to be. I'm ready for this trend to die already &ndash if they can't be on the front, then at least find a way to put them on the sides.

Speaking of the sides, the G Pad 8.3 is pretty much standard fare here: the microUSB port is on the bottom, volume rocker and power button are on the right side, and microSD card slot and 3.5mm headphone jack are found on the top. Nothing particularly out of the ordinary or remarkable here, though the SD card slot does have a nice little cover on it, allowing the hole to be flush with the rest of the edge. Overall the G Pad feels really nice and is a pleasure to hold.

The overall design of the G Pad is pretty basic &ndash it's just a sleek slab of tablet. The edges are slightly rounded &ndash much like the Nexus 7 &ndash so it fits very comfortably in the palm of you hand. And while it's barely thinner than the 2013 N7, it feels substantially thinner when holding it. It also feels a tinge lighter, but that's probably because the weight is distributed across a larger surface &ndash it's actually 48 grams heavier than the new Nexus 7.

Overall, I really like how the G Pad looks &ndash it's sleek and sophisticated without "trying too hard." And that goes without saying that the 8.3-inch form factor is among my absolute favorites. 7.7-8.3 is just a sweet spot if you ask me. It's big enough to be held in one hand or fit it a pocket, but large enough to make consuming content and very enjoyable experience. Whereas seven inches feels a bit small and awkward in landscape but great in portrait, and 10+ inches is funky in portrait but works well in landscape, this form factor works well in both. It's the best of both worlds.

### Display

LG is super proud of the fact that the G Pad's display is the first FHD panel in an 8-inch device. That basically puts it at the top of the class for this size. or at least it did up until Apple announced the iPad Mini with Retina Display. That's irrelevant for anyone looking at Android tablets specifically though.

I'm not going to say that the G Pad's screen is the best I've ever seen, but it's pretty damn good. Colors are bright, viewing angles are excellent, and the 1920x1200 resolution looks great on an 8.3-inch display. Text is super sharp and crisp, so reading on the G Pad is a fantastic experience.

Of course, it also "suffers" from the usual IPS problems: blacks aren't true and colors aren't as vibrant as they could be. Basically, don't expect an AMOLED display and you'll like what the G Pad has to offer.

The primary downside of the G Pad's IPS panel is brightness &ndash specifically, automatic brightness. It just doesn't work. It doesn't matter how much light is in the room (or how much is lacking), automatic brightness basically drops the panel down to about 10%, making it far too dim to be usable. Along those same lines, I found that even 30% (which is what I generally use on the 2013 Nexus 7) to be too dim in most situations. 50% was the sweet spot for me most of the time, but that was still too bright to use in bed at night. Basically, if you decide this is the tablet for you, be prepared to fiddle with the brightness slider fairly often, because "set it and forget it" really isn't an option here.

### Speakers

The G Pad's speakers aren't great, but they're not really "bad," either. The biggest issue with them is the absolutely stupid placement. They're on the back of the tablet, but are basically in landscape position. This means all the sound comes from one side when the device is used in portrait, which is what I would consider the primary mode of use for most people. But even when used in landscape, they're on the back, at the bottom, which is just an annoying place for speakers to be. I guess it's not all bad, because at least they're in a location where your hands shouldn't cover them when holding the tablet.

### Camera

The G Pad's camera is pretty. not good. In low light (read: indoors) it's grainy and washed out, and outdoors isn't much better. The images aren't grainy, but it's basically underexposed across the board &ndash washed out just sort of dull. It's been raining here for the last several days so the test images are sopping wet, but I think they still do a good job of showing what the G Pad's cam is capable of. But as always, this is a tablet camera so you probably won't be taking pictures with it that often anyway.

### Storage

The G Pad comes with 16GB of built-in storage for apps and the like, but LG's massive interface takes up a decent-sized chunk of that. Right out of the box, only 11.04GB are available to the user, which I feel is below the threshold of what's really acceptable when it comes to tablet storage. Of course, it has a microSD card slot, but that only helps in the case of consumable files, like music, movies, books, etc. and does nothing for apps. Of course, if you use Google services for your entertainment &ndash Play Movies, Music, Books, Magazines, etc. &ndash then having an SD card still doesn't do any good, as all these apps default to internal storage with no way of specifying that downloaded content should be moved to the SD Card. That, paired with the fact that a movie can easily pass the 2GB mark (and just a few downloaded magazines can take up equally as much space) means the G Pad will reach its limit very easily. And if you like playing games like Asphalt 7/8 or Modern Combat 4, you can kiss another 2-5+GB goodbye, depending on how many high-quality games you install.

In a nutshell, 16GB is just not enough storage on a tablet if you plan on using it for many of the things it's designed for. I can't for the life of me figure out why manufacturers &ndash especially those that use a heavily-optimized UI &ndash don't seem to understand this.

### Battery life

I found the G Pad's battery life to basically be on par with the 2013 Nexus 7. It had to hit the charger about once every couple of days of "moderate" usage, which consisted of a couple hours of web browsing/reading/email/social networking, a few hours of streaming music over Bluetooth, and about an hour or so of gaming (Total Conquest, Dead Trigger 2). I had email sync on for one account, along with Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram sync, as well. As long as you don't expect to leave the display on throughout your entire work/school day, then you should be able to get a full day from the G Pad's battery at the very least.

## IOS 8.3 beta 3 fixes for 8.2 problems

The next mobile OS update for developers is iOS 8.3 beta 3, as they are already hands-on with the beta 2 version on iPad, iPod touch, and different iPhone models. Yesterday, Apple released the iOS 8.2 update to public and you can see the full list of notes in this article if you missed them.

Today, we wanted to highlight some iOS 8.2 problems evident after consumers downloaded the update last night, or this morning. These issues have been shared with Product Reviews by our readers and also seen on the official discussion forums for Apple.

One forum user explained their iPad just updated to 8.2 and now when they type or hold the screen, it “starts random things”. Another said, “After my upgrade to iOS 8.2 I’m losing connection to my home WiFi non stop. Even if I turn it off and on again, it works for a few minutes and then starts losing connection again”. One tip for these users is to perform a soft reset of their device, which can be done by holding down the power button and menu button.

In regard to iPhone users, we heard directly from our readers about an “iPhone 5 camera only showing black after the 8.2 update”, “The WiFI password being incorrect after this iOS 8 update”, and “battery drain with an iPhone 5 after the 8.2 software update”. This is just a small example of issues, but you will see thousands more by visiting Apple’s forums or searching on Twitter. There’s also a lot of people complaining about signal problems with their mobile network, as seen in this comment “I stupidly updated to iOS 8.2 and now I have no Network Signal in an area where I have full signal”.

The last beta released to the developer portal on Feb 23, 2015. Considering the gap and the release of iOS 8.2 to public, we can now expect a new beta to release to developers at some point in March and one that might include a few fixes to current iOS 8.2 problems. Any bugs being shared with Apple, seen by developers, and official staff could be highlighted enough to receive a fix sooner rather than later.

What problems have you had with the iOS 8.2 update so far and if you’ve had issues, what device were they on? Leave your comments below, especially if you’ve had one of the issues above or something completely different.

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