# 5.1: The Why

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## Why are Teachers Learning this Material?

By the time many students reach college, applying the rules of Greatest Common Factor (GCF) and Least Common Multiple (LCM) are so ingrained in their minds, that they do not even realize they are using the rules anymore. This chapter is to remind them where their knowledge came from.

## Why are Elementary School Students Learning this Mathematics?

The Greatest Common Factor (GCF) and Least Common Multiple (LCM) are important skills for elementary school students. The GCF allows students to reduce fractions. Mastering the GCF will help students later on with the distributive property (factoring) in Algebra 1 as well as word problems. Learning the LCM in elementary school allows students to add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators.

## Platonic Solids - Why Five?

The simplest reason there are only 5 Platonic Solids is this:

At each vertex at least 3 faces meet (maybe more).

When we add up the internal angles that meet at a vertex,
it must be less than 360 degrees.

Because at 360° the shape flattens out!

And, since a Platonic Solid's faces are all identical regular polygons, we get:

A regular triangle has internal angles of 60°, so we can have:

A square has internal angles of 90°, so there is only:

A regular pentagon has internal angles of 108°, so there is only:

A regular hexagon has internal angles of 120°, but 3×120°=360° which won't work because at 360° the shape flattens out.

So a regular pentagon is as far as we can go.

At each vertex: Angles at Vertex
(Less than 360°)
Solid
3 triangles meet 180° tetrahedron
4 triangles meet 240° octahedron
5 triangles meet 300° icosahedron
3 squares meet 270° cube
3 pentagons meet 324° dodecahedron

Anything else has 360° or more at a vertex, which is impossible. Example: 4 regular pentagons (4×108° = 432°) won't work. And 3 regular hexagons (3×120° = 360°) won't work either.

And that is the simplest reason.

## 5.1 The Selection Process

Once you have developed your recruitment plan, recruited people, and now have plenty of people to choose from, you can begin the selection process. The selection process refers to the steps involved in choosing people who have the right qualifications to fill a current or future job opening. Usually, managers and supervisors will be ultimately responsible for the hiring of individuals, but the role of human resource management (HRM) is to define and guide managers in this process. Similar to the recruitment process discussed in Chapter 4 “Recruitment”, the selection process is expensive. The time for all involved in the hiring process to review résumés, weight the applications, and interview the best candidates takes away time (and costs money) that those individuals could spend on other activities. In addition, there are the costs of testing candidates and bringing them in from out of town for interviews. In fact, the US Department of Labor and Statistics estimates the combined direct and indirect cost of hiring someone new can reach upwards of $40,000 (Hamm, 2011). Because of the high cost, it is important to hire the right person from the beginning and ensure a fair selection process. For example, the Austin, Texas, fire department calculated it would cost$150,000 to reinterview candidates, after the interview questions were leaked to the public, giving some candidates possibly unfair advantages in the interview process 1 .

Interviews can be nerve wracking. In this chapter, we will discuss what goes into making the best hiring decision.

The selection process consists of five distinct aspects:

Criteria development. All individuals involved in the hiring process should be properly trained on the steps for interviewing, including developing criteria, reviewing résumés, developing interview questions, and weighting the candidates.

The first aspect to selection is planning the interview process, which includes criteria development. Criteria development means determining which sources of information will be used and how those sources will be scored during the interview. The criteria should be related directly to the job analysis and the job specifications. This is discussed in Chapter 4 “Recruitment”. In fact, some aspects of the job analysis and job specifications may be the actual criteria. In addition to this, include things like personality or cultural fit, which would also be part of criteria development. This process usually involves discussing which skills, abilities, and personal characteristics are required to be successful at any given job. By developing the criteria before reviewing any résumés, the HR manager or manager can be sure he or she is being fair in selecting people to interview. Some organizations may need to develop an application or a biographical information sheet. Most of these are completed online and should include information about the candidate, education, and previous job experience.

Figure 5.2 The Selection Process at a Glance

• Understand KSAOs
• Determine sources of KSAO information such as testing, interviews
• Develop scoring system for each of the sources of information
• Create an interview plan
• Should be based on criteria developed in step one
• Consider internal versus external candidates
• Determine types of interview(s)
• Write interview questions
• Be aware of interview bias
• Perform testing as outlined in criteria development could include reviewing work samples, drug testing or written cognitive and personality tests
• Determine which selection method will be used
• Compare selection method criteria
• Use negotiation techniques
• Write the offer letter or employment agreement

We will discuss each of these aspects in detail in this chapter.

#### Human Resource Recall

When was the last time you interviewed for a job? Did the process seem to flow smoothly? Why or why not?

## WHY TRUE BELIEVERS CAN REJOICE – Romans 5:1-5

Thus far in Romans, Apostle Paul has spent considerable time detailing man’s need for salvation. We have learned that man is a sinner and that he abides under the wrath of God. We have learned that nothing associated with religion, works, the Law, or with rituals can ever provide salvation to humanity. We have seen that we are totally dependent upon faith (FAITH) to bring us into a right relationship with the Lord. It all comes down to realizing that it is not what we do that makes the difference in the saving of our souls, it is all about Who we know. When we know the Lord Jesus Christ, we have salvation, when we do not know Jesus, we are lost, 1 John 5:12.

With this truth firmly nailed down, Paul now moves forward in his discussion of the doctrines of salvation. Now, Paul begins to tell his readers the benefits of being saved by grace through faith .

In these first 5 verses of chapter 5 , Paul tells us Why True Believers Can Rejoice in their salvation. It is that theme that I want to spend some time looking at this evening. I want to tell you Why True Believers Can Rejoice. If you haven’t been in a rejoicing mood lately, I want to show you why every child of God has the right to praise the Lord and be filled with “ joy unspeakable and full of glory”, 1 Peter 1:8.

I. V. 1a OUR POSITION AS BELIEVERS

(Ill. The first reason we have for rejoicing is that of our position in Christ Jesus. Notice what this great verse says about our position.)

A. Our Position Declared – Paul says that we who have believed have been “justified” . This is a word that many do not fully understand. Basically, it means “to count someone righteous.” It means “to reckon, to account, to judge, to treat, or to look upon as righteous.” It does not mean to make righteous! It does mean that we are treated like we were righteous.

(Ill. We are all sinners! Even though most of us claim to be Christians, we are still sinners! Justification does not mean that God is not aware of our sins. It does mean that in spite of our sins, God treats us as though we were not sinners. Even though we are unrighteous and wicked, God treats us as though we were as righteous and pure as He is Himself.)

(Ill. How is this possible? It happens because when the Lord Jesus died on the cross, He paid for ALL of our sins. Then when we receive Him as our Savior, God gives us the righteousness of Christ, 2 Cor. 5:21 . Justification does not mean that we are perfect, it just means that God sees us as though we were!)

(Ill. Imagine a man on trial for murder. The prosecution knows he is guilty, the defendant knows he is guilty and even the judge knows he is guilty, but the jury finds him not guilty. Even though nearly everyone in that courtroom knows the man is guilty of murder, he is treated like an innocent person because he has been declared innocent. When I stand before the Lord, I know I am guilty, the devil knows I am guilty and God knows I am guilty. However, because I have trusted Jesus, God treats me as though I was innocent because He has justified me! Amen!)

(Ill. If this truth ever dawned in the depths of our souls, it would change us forever!)

B. Our Position Described – How did this great miraculous and fantastic justification come about in your life and mine? By faith! We didn’t earn it! We didn’t deserve it! All we did was take God at His Word concerning the Person and Work of the Lord Jesus Christ and God justified us by faith! Hallelujah!

(Ill. I am grateful this evening that salvation is the product of faith alone! If it relied on my ability to perform, I would be lost. If it required me to keep a list of rules perfectly, I would be lost. If it required me be a good person, I would be lost. Thank God, it is all by faith in the Lord Jesus Christ!)

I. Our Position As Believers

II. V. 1b-2 OUR POSSESSIONS AS BELIEVERS

(Ill. In these verses, Paul lists for us some of the benefits of justification. Because we are considered righteous by the Lord, there are certain things that belong to us tonight. These possessions are very precious and should never be taken for granted, but we should meditate on them and allow them to be the catalyst for rejoicing in the Lord.)

A. V. 1b We Possess Acceptance – According to Paul, salvation brings with it peace (PEACE) with God! This is a truth that can hardly be understood by our mortal minds! You see, every lost person is the enemy of God, Rom. 8:7. But, when that lost person turns to Jesus Christ by faith, God declares an end to the hostilities! God declares peace. He then brings that person into a right relationship with Himself. When Jesus is trusted by faith, that person enjoys immediate peace with God. What does this mean?

1. God’s wrath is turned away – Rom. 5:9.

2. Heaven is satisfied – 1 John 2:2

3. Old enemies have been reconciled – 2 Cor. 5:18

(Ill. There is an expression that I have heard many people use over the years. It involves “Making peace with God. ” I read about an old saint who was dying. He was visited by a friend who asked him, “Have you made your peace with God?” The man replied, “No, I haven’t.” To that his friend said, “What! Oh you must make peace with God.” “I’m sorry, I cannot do that.”, replied the dying man. His friend said, “But you must! Don’t you know that it is dangerous to die without making peace with God?” To this, the dying man said, “But how can I make peace with God? My Lord made peace with me 2,000 years ago when He died on the cross, and I accepted it. I have had peace ever since!” This man understood the truth of Colossians 1:20 , “And, having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself by him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven.”)

(Ill. We don’t make peace with God, He made peace with us at the cross (CROSS). Now, we must accept that and when we do, we are given peace with God. This is the first permanent blessing the every child of God receives at the very instant of salvation. We are accepted by God! We are at peace with Him!)

B. V. 2a We Possess Access – This verse teaches us the truth that through Jesus Christ, we have direct access to God Himself. The word “access” means “to enter the presence of the king.” Through Jesus, we have the right to enter into the very presence of the God of Heaven without fear! We have access to the Heavenly Father!

(Ill. This must have been a radical idea to Paul’s readers. Most of them came from a religious background that demanded that a respectful distance be maintained between the worshiper and God. Think for a minute about the Temple! Gentiles were restricted to the outer court of the Temple.

If they went any further in, they could be executed. Women were restricted to “The Court Of Women”. Then, there was the “Holy Place”. Where only the priests could minister. Beyond this, there was the “Holy of Holies”. Only the High Priest was permitted to enter this room, and then only once per year on the Day of Atonement, and he could not enter without the blood of an innocent sacrifice. The message was crystal clear: “Keep Your Distance!”)

(Ill. Paul’s message is that through Jesus, we have full access to the Father in Heaven!)

(Ill. A little boy once stood outside the gate of Buckingham Palace in London. He wanted to talk to the king, but was sternly turned away by the guards at the gate. As he stood there crying, a well-dressed man approached him and asked the little fellow why he was so upset. The little boy told the man his story. When he had heard the reason behind the little boy’s tears, he smiled and said, “Here, hold my hand, sonny. I’ll get you in. Just you never mind those soldier!” The little boy took the strangers hand and together they approached the gate. When the soldiers saw them coming, they all snapped to attention and open wide the gate for the stranger and the little boy to enter. He was lead through the gate, across the courtyard, down carpeted hallways and through open doors, until finally, he was brought into the very presence of the king himself. What got him there? He was holding the right hand! You see, the kind stranger was none other than the Prince of Wales, the king’s own son.)

(Folks, There is only one way to Heaven: Jesus, John 14:6. If we are holding His hand, we will have no trouble entering the presence of the Father!)

C. V. 2b We Possess Assurance – Not only is there peace with God and access into God presence, but the believer also enjoys blessed, deep-settled assurance of salvation . Notice that the assurance we have is two-fold.

1. Assurance Here – Notice the phrase, “grace wherein we now stand.” The word “stand” carries the idea of permanence, of being firmly fixed and immovable. Basically, this verse teaches us that we are absolutely secure in the Lord Jesus Christ. In other words, this verse is all about our eternal security as believers.

(Ill. The eternal security of the believer is a doctrine that many do not hold to this evening. Many people prefer to believe that a person can be saved and then, somehow, they can lose their salvation and need to be saved all over again. These folks laugh at us Bible believers who affirm the security of the believer. And, one of the main problems they express with the doctrine is that it leads to loose living among many who profess to be eternally saved. Sadly, they are right! Many use the eternal security of the believer as a license to commit sin. However, the person who lives such a life neither understands eternal security, nor does he understand salvation! Our security in Christ leads the genuine believer to live a clean, holy life . A life of gratitude to the One Who paid the ultimate price to provide salvation in the first place.)

(Ill. According to verse one, we are saved, or justified, by faith right? That is, we did not earn, buy or get it as a reward. Salvation was given as a gift (GIFT)! Okay, if that is true, then verse two says that we “stand” (firmly affixed) by grace. In other words, it was faith that saved the soul, and it is grace that keeps the soul! To say that we are saved by trusting Jesus and then, after that, we must keep ourselves saved, is a total contradiction. If I can keep myself saved, why don’t I just go ahead and do the whole job? The answer? I can’t do either! I was saved by grace and I am kept by grace, 1 Pet. 1:5. It is all God all the way!)

(Ill. Note Romans 8:31-34. These verses tell us that the highest court in the universe has declared the believer to be justified. Where is the court that can over turn that verdict?)

(Ill. There is always someone who wants to ask what if this or what if that. Well, regardless of the “if”, the child of God is still secure in Jesus! Notice the following:

1. What if I deny Him? – 2 Tim. 2:13

2. What if I cannot hold out? – Phil. 1:6 Jude 24 Gal. 3:3

3. What if I sin after I am saved? – Col. 2:13-14 Rom. 5:20 1 John 1:9

4. What if it is you are wrong? – John 6:37

Hey, I’ve got some “what if’s”. What if we stopped looking for a reason not to believe and just started taking the Lord at His Word? What if we just believed that the same God Who was powerful enough to save us was also able to keep us? What if we just let “eternal” mean “eternal”? What if we just let “everlasting” mean “everlasting”? What if we just rejoiced in the salvation we have in Him and rested in the blessed assurance that is ours by faith? What if we just stopped looking for a reason to doubt God and just took Him at His Word?

(Ill. The bottom line is that you can have absolute assurance here!)

2. Assurance Hereafter – Just as sure as we can know and believe that we are saved and secure in this life, so too, we can have that same assurance beyond this life. Eternal security extends beyond the grave – Rom. 8:29-30. From these verses, it is plain to see that our security has already been planned by God. That is why we can say this evening that we are as sure for Heaven as if we had already been there 10,000 years!

I. Our Position As Believers

II. Our Possessions As Believers

III. V. 3-5 OUR PRIVILEGES AS BELIEVERS

(Ill. We are saved and we are secure, but right now, we live in a world of trials and tribulations. We need help tonight in these areas as well. Notice some of the great privileges that are our as believers in Jesus Christ.)

A. V.3a The Ability To Rejoice In Trouble – Paul says that the Christian can rejoice in the bad times of life. Why is this true? Because of the little word “knowing” . When the trials of life descend, the true believer knows that God is working out His will in our lives and is attempting to produce in us a state of “Christlikeness”. God is trying to make us like the Lord Jesus Christ.

(Ill. The word “tribulations” means “pressure”. There are certainly times when this life will exert pressure on the child of God. However, the mature Christian also knows that it takes pressure to produce Christlikeness. Pressure is the process used to turn coal into diamonds . And, it is pressure in the life of the believer that forces out more of the old, sinful nature and reveals more of the image of God.)

(You see, we can rejoice in trouble if we will remember that every trial is a blessing from the very hand of God, Rom. 8:28. That is will produce in us more of the image of Jesus. That when we have been chosen to suffer for Him, He is merely helping us become more like Him. With that in mind, it is easier to endure the difficult days.)

B. V. 3b-5a The Ability To Recognize Our Troubles – In this section, Paul tells us all about the benefits derived from the “pressures” of life . Note the progression mentioned in these verses.

1. Tribulation – Pressure

2. Patience – Endurance

3. Experience – Proven Character or Maturity

4. Hope – The confident expectation that we will not be disappointed.

Basically, what Paul is saying is that when troubles come in our lives as a result of our walk with the Lord, we learn to endure and through endurance we are matured and proven in our character, then as we see God sustain us in the difficult time, we can rest in the deep settled knowledge that He is in control and will see us through. Amen!

Ill. Simply stated, the more we endure for Jesus, the more we become like Him! And that is a good thing!

(Ill. You can mark this down, “The road to Christian maturity is paved with struggle!” Just as any growing saint of God.

1. Ask Abraham and he will point to Mt. Moriah.

2. Ask Jacob and he will point to a pillow of stone.

3. Ask Joseph and he will point to a Egyptian prison.

4. Ask Moses and he will point to the backside of the desert.

5. Ask the three Hebrew children and they will point to a fiery furnace.

6. Ask Daniel and he will point to a den of lions.

7. Ask Peter and he will point to a Roman fire and his three denials.

8. Ask John and he will point to the Island of Patmos (Revelation).

9. Ask any believer who has traveled far with Jesus and he will tell you that “God’s blessings are poured from a bitter cup!”

C. V. 5b The Ability To Rest In Our Troubles – If life is to be difficult and there is to be trouble in my life, then how can I rejoice and how can I rest? The answer lies in this verse. Paul tells us that the love (LOVE) of God , like a vast river, is constantly being poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit! When we were saved, God placed His Spirit into us. The Holy Spirit is like a conduit through which streams vast quantities of the great love (LOVE) of God.

(Ill. As we go through this life, there will be many difficult days. However, as we face all the things that will come our way, we always have the precious Holy Spirit (HOLY SPIRIT) in us to guide us, to teach us, to constantly remind us of the awesome love of God for His children. He makes the trip bearable! He makes the destination believable. If we will but learn to rest in the Spirit of God, He has the power to keep our hearts in perfect peace, regardless of how difficult the way becomes, “Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed on thee: because he trusteth in thee.”, Isa. 26:3.)

If you ask me, these reasons are more than sufficient to give every child of God justification to rejoice in God and in His salvation. I am sure the Lord has spoken to some hearts this evening.

Maybe you aren’t saved and want to get in on justification. Jesus is available if you will come to Him by faith. Maybe you have been worried over doubts concerning your eternal security as a believer in the Lord Jesus Christ. There is help in Him if you will come. Maybe you have been going through trials and tribulations and they have just about got the better of you. Why not bring them to Jesus and let Him let you understand that He is just duplicating His life in you? If there are needs, this altar is the place where they will be met. Will you come if the Lord is speaking to your heart?

## Interpreting

During the interpreting stage of listening, we combine the visual and auditory information we receive and try to make meaning out of that information using schemata. The interpreting stage engages cognitive and relational processing as we take in informational, contextual, and relational cues and try to connect them in meaningful ways to previous experiences. It is through the interpreting stage that we may begin to understand the stimuli we have received. When we understand something, we are able to attach meaning by connecting information to previous experiences. Through the process of comparing new information with old information, we may also update or revise particular schemata if we find the new information relevant and credible. If we have difficulty interpreting information, meaning we don’t have previous experience or information in our existing schemata to make sense of it, then it is difficult to transfer the information into our long-term memory for later recall. In situations where understanding the information we receive isn’t important or isn’t a goal, this stage may be fairly short or even skipped. After all, we can move something to our long-term memory by repetition and then later recall it without ever having understood it. I remember earning perfect scores on exams in my anatomy class in college because I was able to memorize and recall, for example, all the organs in the digestive system. In fact, I might still be able to do that now over a decade later. But neither then nor now could I tell you the significance or function of most of those organs, meaning I didn’t really get to a level of understanding but simply stored the information for later recall.

Here are the steps you need to complete to enable 5.1 passthrough on compatible TVs.

• Samsung:
• Go to Menu > Sound > Speaker List and select &lsquoReceiver (HDMI)&rsquo for HDMI ARC, or &lsquoAudio Out/Optical&rsquo for digital optical.
• Go to Menu > Sound > Additional Settings and set &lsquoHDMI Audio Format&rsquo to &lsquoBitstream.&rsquo
• Go to Menu > Sound > Additional Settings and set &lsquoAudio Format&rsquo to either &lsquoDolby Digital&rsquo or &lsquoDTS.&rsquo
• For HDMI ARC, go to Menu > General and enable &lsquoAnyNet+.&rsquo
• Sony:
• Go to Settings > Sound > Speakers and select &lsquoAudio System.&rsquo
• Go to Settings > Sound > Digital Audio Out and select &lsquoAuto 1&rsquo
• For HDMI ARC, enabled &lsquoBravia Sync Control.&rsquo
• Vizio:
• Go to Menu > Audio > and set &lsquoTV Speakers&rsquo to &lsquoOff.&rsquo
• Go to Menu > Audio > Digital Audio Out and select &lsquoBitstream.&rsquo
• For HDMI ARC, go to Menu> System and set CEC to &lsquoEnabled.&rsquo
• LG (For most TVs with 5.1 passthrough):
• Go to Settings > Advanced > Sound > Sound Out and select &lsquoAudio Out (Optical/HDMI ARC).&rsquo
• For HDMI ARC, go to Settings > General > Simplink and set it to &lsquoOn.&rsquo

## 5.1: The Why

1 Samuel 5:1 . The Philistines took the ark of God — Abarbinel gives several reasons why God suffered the ark of his presence to fall into the hands of these uncircumcised heathen: 1st, The Israelites were such great sinners that they were unworthy of this symbol of the divine presence among them: 2d, The idolatry of Micah remained to this day in the land, therefore God fulfilled his threatening, Leviticus 26:19-31 : 3d, The sin of the priests highly provoked him to deliver up the ark, which was in their hands when they were killed: 4th, The Israelites greatly offended in carrying the ark into the battle without asking counsel of God: 5th, He resolved to demonstrate his power even among the enemies of Israel. And brought it from Eben-ezer — Where the Israelites were encamped before the battle, chap. 1 Samuel 4:1 to Ashdod — One of their chief cities, in which, as also at Gaza and Garb, some of the Anakims, the giants, remained till the time of David.

1Sa 5:1, 2. The Philistines Bring the Ark into the House of Dagon.

1. Ashdod—or Azotus, one of the five Philistine satrapies, and a place of great strength. It was an inland town, thirty-four miles north of Gaza, now called Esdud.The Philistines place the ark of God at Ashdod in the house of Dagon which falls down, once and again, 1 Samuel 5:1-5 . They of Ashdod are smitten with emerods they send the ark to Gath, 1 Samuel 5:6-8 . They are also smitten with emerods, and send the ark to Ekron they resolve to return it back to the Israelites, 1 Samuel 5:9-12 .

Quest. Why were not they immediately killed, who touched the ark, as afterwards Uzzah was? 2 Samuel 6:7 .

Answ. First, Because the sin of the Philistines was not so great, because the law forbidding this was not given, or at least was not known to them whereas Uzzah’s fact was a transgression, and that of a known law. Secondly, Because God designed to reserve the Philistines for a more public and more shameful punishment, which had been prevented by this. From Eben-ezer where they found it in the camp of the Israelites, 1 Samuel 4:1 . Ashdod, called also Azotus whither they brought it, either because it was the first city in their way, or rather because it was a great and famous city, and most eminent for the worship of their great god Dagon.

and brought it from Ebenezer unto Ashdod. Ebenezer was the place where the camp of Israel was pitched, 1 Samuel 4:1 and near to which the battle was fought. Ashdod was one of the five principalities of the Philistines, the same with Azotus, Acts 8:40. The distance between these two places, according to Bunting (q) was one hundred and sixty miles though one would think the distance from each other was not so great: why it was carried to Ashdod is not plain perhaps it might be the nearest place of note in their country and certain it is that it was one of their most famous cities, if not the most famous See Gill on Isaiah 20:1, and had a famous idol temple in it.

(q) Travels of the Patriarchs, &c. p. 122.

(a) Which was one of the five principal cities of the Philistines.

Ch. 1 Samuel 5:1-12. Chastisement of the Philistines for the Removal of the Ark

## Contents

The Five Ws and How were long attributed to Hermagoras of Temnos. [5] But in 2010, it was established that Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics are in fact the source of the elements of circumstance or Septem Circumstantiae. [6] Thomas Aquinas had much earlier acknowledged Aristotle as the originator of the elements of circumstances, providing a detailed commentary on Aristotle's system in his "Treatise on human acts" and specifically in part one of two Q7 "Of the Circumstances of Human Acts". Thomas Aquinas examines the concept of Aristotle's voluntary and involuntary action in his Summa Theologiae as well as a further set of questions about the elements of circumstance. [7] Primarily he asks "Whether a circumstance is an accident of a human act" (Article 1), "Whether Theologians should take note of the circumstances of human acts?" (Article 2), "Whether the circumstances are properly set forth (in Aristotle's) third book of Ethics" (Article 3) and "Whether the most important circumstances are 'Why' and 'In What the act consists'?" (Article 4).

For in acts we must take note of who did it, by what aids or instruments he did it (with), what he did, where he did it, why he did it, how and when he did it. [7]

For Aristotle, the elements are used in order to distinguish voluntary or involuntary action, a crucial distinction for him. [8] These elements of circumstances are used by Aristotle as a framework to describe and evaluate moral action in terms of What was or should be done, Who did it, How it was done, Where it happened, and most importantly for what reason (Why), and so on for all the other elements:

Therefore it is not a pointless endeavor to divide these circumstances by kind and number (1) the Who, (2) the What, (3) around what place (Where) or (4) in which time something happens (When), and sometimes (5) with what, such as an instrument (With), (6) for the sake of what (Why), such as saving a life, and (7) the (How), such as gently or violently…And it seems that the most important circumstances are those just listed, including the Why. [6]

For Aristotle, ignorance of any of these elements can imply involuntary action:

Thus, with ignorance as a possibility concerning all these things, that is, the circumstances of the act, the one who acts in ignorance of any of them seems to act involuntarily, and especially regarding the most important ones. And it seems that the most important circumstances are those just listed, including the Why [6]

In the Politics, Aristotle illustrates why the elements are important in terms of human (moral) action:

I mean, for instance (a particular circumstance or movement or action), How could we advise the Athenians whether they should go to war or not, if we did not know their strength (How much), whether it was naval or military or both (What kind), and how great it is (How many), what their revenues amount to (With), Who their friends and enemies are (Who), what wars, too they have waged (What), and with what success and so on. [9]

Essentially, these elements of circumstances provide a theoretical framework that can be used to particularize, explain or predict any given set of circumstances of action. Hermagoras went so far as to claim that all hypotheses are derived from these seven circumstances:

In other words, no hypothetical question, or question involving particular persons and actions, can arise without reference to these circumstances, and no demonstration of such a question can be made without using them. [5]

In any particular act or situation, one needs to interrogate these questions in order to determine the actual circumstances of the action.

It is necessary for students of virtue to differentiate between the Voluntary and Involuntary such a distinction should even prove useful to the lawmaker for assigning honors and punishments. [6]

This aspect is encapsulated by Aristotle in Rhetoric as forensic speech and is used to determine "The characters and circumstances which lead men to commit wrong, or make them the victims of wrong" [10] in order to accuse or defend. It is this application of the elements of circumstances that was emphasised by latter rhetoricians.

Even though the classical origin of these questions as situated in ethics had long been lost, they have been a standard way of formulating or analyzing rhetorical questions since antiquity. [11] The rhetor Hermagoras of Temnos, as quoted in pseudo-Augustine's De Rhetorica, [12] applied Aristotle's "elements of circumstances" (μόρια περιστάσεως) [13] as the loci of an issue:

Quis, quid, quando, ubi, cur, quem ad modum, quibus adminiculis. [14] [15] (Who, what, when, where, why, in what way, by what means)

St. Thomas Aquinas [7] also refers to the elements as used by Cicero in De Inventione (Chap. 24 DD1, 104) as:

Quis, quid, ubi, quibus auxiliis, cur, quomodo, quando. [7]

Similarly, Quintilian discussed loci argumentorum, but did not put them in the form of questions. [14]

Victorinus explained Cicero's application of the elements of circumstances by putting them into correspondence with Hermagoras's questions: [14]

Julius Victor also lists circumstances as questions. [14]

Boethius "made the seven circumstances fundamental to the arts of prosecution and defense":

Quis, quid, cur, quomodo, ubi, quando, quibus auxiliis. [14] (Who, what, why, how, where, when, with what)

The question form was taken up again in the 12th century by Thierry de Chartres and John of Salisbury. [14]

To administer suitable penance to sinners, the 21st canon of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) enjoined confessors to investigate both sins and the circumstances of the sins. The question form was popular for guiding confessors, and it appeared in several different forms: [16]

Quis, quid, ubi, per quos, quoties, cur, quomodo, quando. [17] Quis, quid, ubi, quibus auxiliis, cur, quomodo, quando. [18] Quis, quid, ubi, cum quo, quotiens, cur, quomodo, quando. [19] Quid, quis, ubi, quibus auxiliis, cur, quomodo, quando. [20] Quid, ubi, quare, quantum, conditio, quomodo, quando: adiuncto quoties. [21]

The method of questions was also used for the systematic exegesis of a text. [22]

In the 16th century, Thomas Wilson wrote in English verse:

Who, what, and where, by what helpe, and by whose:
Why, how, and when, doe many things disclose. [23]

In the United States in the 19th century, Prof. William Cleaver Wilkinson popularized the "Three Ws" – What? Why? What of it? – as a method of Bible study in the 1880s, although he did not claim originality. This eventually became the "Five Ws", but the application was rather different from that in journalism:

"What? Why? What of it?" is a plan of study of alliterative methods for the teacher emphasized by Professor W.C. Wilkinson not as original with himself but as of venerable authority. "It is, in fact," he says, "an almost immemorial orator's analysis. First the facts, next the proof of the facts, then the consequences of the facts. This analysis has often been expanded into one known as "The Five Ws": "When? Where? Who? What? Why?" Hereby attention is called, in the study of any lesson: to the date of its incidents to their place or locality to the person speaking or spoken to, or to the persons introduced, in the narrative to the incidents or statements of the text and, finally, to the applications and uses of the lesson teachings. [24]

The "Five Ws" (and one H) were memorialized by Rudyard Kipling in his Just So Stories (1902), in which a poem, accompanying the tale of The Elephant's Child, [25] opens with:

I keep six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I knew)
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.

By 1917, the "Five Ws" were being taught in high-school journalism classes, [26] and by 1940, the tendency of journalists to address all of the "Five Ws" within the lead paragraph of an article was being characterized as old-fashioned and fallacious:

The old-fashioned lead of the five Ws and the H, crystallized largely by Pulitzer's "new journalism" and sanctified by the schools, is widely giving way to the much more supple and interesting feature lead, even on straight news stories. [27]

All of you know about – and I hope all of you admit the fallacy of – the doctrine of the five Ws in the first sentence of the newspaper story. [28]

Starting in the 2000s, the Five Ws were sometimes misattributed to Kipling, especially in the management and quality literature, [29] [30] and contrasted with the Five whys. [31]

In English, most of the interrogative words begin with the same letters, wh- in Latin, most also begin with the same letters, qu-. This is not a coincidence, as they are cognates derived from the Proto-Indo-European interrogative pronoun root k w o-, reflected in Proto-Germanic as χ w a- or kh w a- and in Latin as qu-.

## Annual Wages of Top Earners

The latest data from the EPI show that in 2018 annual wages for the top 1% reached $737,697, up just 0.2% compared to 2017. How much do you need to earn to be in the top 0.1%? A hefty$2,808,104, which is less than the $2,824,069 you would have needed to earn in 2017. Wages for the bottom 90% rose more (1.4%) than the wealthiest, but average annual wages were dramatically less at$37,574. ﻿ ﻿

2018 Annual Wages
Group Wages
Top 0.1% of Earners $2,808,104 Top 1% of Earners$737,697
Top 5% of Earners $309,348 Top 10% of Earners$158,002

Despite the lack of growth in 2018, historically the rich have become richer faster than the rest of the population. Since 1979, the top 1% saw their wages grow by 157.8% and the top 0.1% by more than twice as much⁠—340.7%. Wages for the bottom 90% only grew 23.9% in the same time period. ﻿ ﻿

The latest figures were drawn from Social Security Administration data, allowing EPI researchers to estimate wage trends in more precise segments and to measure trends. ﻿ ﻿

The study is about wages, not an income as a whole⁠—it does not include investment income, for example, which is not part of Social Security data.

## Now what

Timberland is a vital and renewable resource. Weyerhaeuser's long-term debt, meanwhile, is fairly reasonable at roughly 45% of its capital structure at the end of the first quarter. Its recent efforts to shore up its liquidity, meanwhile, have left it with roughly \$1.5 billion in cash on its balance sheet. It looks as if the REIT can muddle through this difficult period. Which means that it will eventually live up to its promise that it is committed to returning value to shareholders via dividends. For now, however, investors are taking the news badly, suggesting that some income investors aren't willing to wait around on a promise that the dividend will eventually return.