5.3: Typical Examples

5.3: Typical Examples

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Example 1

[egin{array}{cc} {K' = HKH,}&{H = exp (frac{mu}{2} hat{h} cdot vec{sigma})} {vec{k} = vec{k}_{parallel}+vec{k}_{perp}}&{vec{k}_{parallel} = (vec{k} cdot hat{h}) hat{h}} end{array}]

By using (6a) and (7b):

[egin{array}{cc} {vec{k}_{parallel} cdot vec{sigma} H = H vec{k}_{parallel} cdot vec{sigma},}&{vec{k}_{perp} cdot vec{sigma} H = H^{-1} vec{k}_{perp} cdot vec{sigma}} {}&{vec{k}'_{parallel} = vec{k}_{parallel} = k hat{h}} end{array}]

[egin{array}{c} {(k'_{0}+vec{k}'_{parallel} cdot vec{sigma}) = H^{2} (k_{0}+vec{k}_{parallel} cdot vec{sigma})} {(cosh mu+sinh mu hat{h} cdot vec{sigma})(k_{0}+vec{k}_{parallel} cdot vec{sigma})} end{array}]

[egin{array}{c} {k'_{0} = k_{0} cosh mu+ k sinh mu} {k' = k_{0} sinh mu+ k cosh mu} end{array}]

Example 2

[egin{array}{cc} {K' = UKU^{-1},}&{U = exp (-i frac{phi}{2} hat{u} cdot vec{sigma})} {vec{k} = vec{k}_{parallel}+vec{k}_{perp}}&{vec{k}_{parallel} = (vec{k} cdot hat{u}) hat{u}} end{array}]

[egin{array}{cc} {vec{k}_{parallel} cdot vec{sigma} U^{-1} = U^{-1} vec{k}_{parallel} cdot vec{sigma},}&{vec{k}_{perp} cdot vec{sigma} U^{-1} = U vec{k}_{perp} cdot vec{sigma}} {}&{vec{k'}_{parallel} = vec{k}_{parallel}} end{array}]

[egin{array}{c} {vec{k}'_{perp} cdot vec{sigma} = (cos frac{phi}{2} 1-i sin frac{phi}{2} hat{u} cdot vec{sigma})^{2} vec{k}_{perp} cdot vec{sigma}} {= (cos phi 1-i sin phi hat{u} cdot vec{sigma}) vec{k}_{perp} cdot vec{sigma}} end{array}]

[egin{array}{c} {vec{k}'_{perp} cdot vec{sigma} = cos phi vec{k}_{perp}+sin phi hat{u} imes vec{k}_{perp}} end{array}]

For television, the display aspect ratio (DAR) is shown, not the storage aspect ratio (SAR) analog television does not have well-defined pixels, while several digital television standards have non-square pixels.

Analog TV standards Edit

Digital TV standards Edit

Digital television broadcast and video media distribution standards
Standard Resolution
(dots × lines)
Name Scan Frame rate
Display aspect
ratio, H :V
VCD (MPEG-1), LDTV (e.g. DMB) 352 × 240 SIF 525 240i 30 4:3 84,480
352 × 288 SIF 625 288i 25 101,376
CVD 352 × 480 480i 30 4:3, 16:9 168,960
352 × 576 576i 25 202,725
SVCD (MPEG-2) 480 × 480 480i 30 4:3, 16:9 230,400
480 × 576 576i 25 276,480
DVD 720 × 480 NTSC 480i, 480p 24, 30 4:3, 16:9 345,600
720 × 576 PAL 576i, 576p 25 4:3, 16:9 414,720
SDTV, EDTV (SMPTE 293M, Rec. 601, e.g. ATSC, DVB, [24] ISDB) 352 × 480 480i, 480p 30 4:3, 16:9 168,960
480 × 480 230,400
528 × 480 253,440
544 × 480 261,120
640 × 480 307,200
704 × 480 4SIF 525 337,920
720 × 480 NTSC 345,600
480 × 576 576i, 576p 25 4:3, 16:9 276,480
544 × 576 313,344
704 × 576 4SIF 625 405,504
720 × 576 PAL 414,720
HDTV (Rec. 709 Blu-ray, HD DVD) 1280 × 720 HD 720p 24, 25, 30, 50, 60 16:9 921,600
1920 × 1080 Full HD 1080i, 1080p 24, 25, 30 16:9, 2.21:1 2,073,600
UHDTV (Rec. 2020, Ultra HD Blu-ray) 3840 × 2160 4K UHDTV 2160p 24, 25, 30, 50, 60, 100, 120 16:9 8,294,400
7680 × 4320 8K UHDTV 4320p 33,177,600

Many of these resolutions are also used for video files that are not broadcast. These may also use other aspect ratios by cropping otherwise black bars at the top and bottom which result from cinema aspect ratios greater than 16∶9, such as 1.85 or 2.35 through 2.40 (dubbed "Cinemascope", "21∶9" etc.), while the standard horizontal resolution, e.g. 1920 pixels, is usually kept. The vertical resolution is usually a multiple of 8 or 16 pixels due to most video codecs processing pizels on such sized blocks. A widescreen FHD video can be 1920 × 800 for a 12∶5 ratio or 1920 × 1040 for roughly 1.85 × 1 , for instance.

Digital film standards
Standard Resolution Display
Digital cinema 2× 2048 × 858 2.39:1 1,757,184
Digital cinema 2× 1998 × 1080 1.85:1 2,157,840
Academy 2× 1828 × 1332 1.37:1 2,434,896
Full Aperture Native 2× 2048 × 1556 1.32:1 3,186,688
Digital cinema 4× 4096 × 1714 2.39:1 7,020,544
Digital cinema 4× 3996 × 2160 1.85:1 8,631,360
Digital Cinema Initiatives 4× (native resolution) 4096 × 2160 1.90:1 8,847,360
Academy 4× 3656 × 2664 1.37:1 9,739,584
Full Aperture 4× 4096 × 3112 1.32:1 12,746,752
6K [25] 6144 × 3160 1.94:1 19,415,040
8K 7992 × 4320 1.85:1 34,525,440
7.2K 7200 × 3060 2.35:1 23,003,136
IMAX Digital [26] 5616 × 4096 1.37:1 23,003,136

The below distinguish SAR (aspect ratio of pixel dimensions), DAR (aspect ratio of displayed image dimensions), and the corresponding PAR (aspect ratio of individual pixels), though it currently contains some errors (inconsistencies), as flagged.

Important note

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Key Terms

picture created by a spatial arrangement of characters or glyphs (typically from the 95 printable characters defined by ASCII)

hardware and/or software that acts as a user agent, or along with a mainstream user agent, to provide functionality to meet the requirements of users with disabilities that go beyond those offered by mainstream user agents

functionality provided by assistive technology includes alternative presentations (e.g., as synthesized speech or magnified content), alternative input methods (e.g., voice), additional navigation or orientation mechanisms, and content transformations (e.g., to make tables more accessible).

Assistive technologies often communicate data and messages with mainstream user agents by using and monitoring APIs.

The distinction between mainstream user agents and assistive technologies is not absolute. Many mainstream user agents provide some features to assist individuals with disabilities. The basic difference is that mainstream user agents target broad and diverse audiences that usually include people with and without disabilities. Assistive technologies target narrowly defined populations of users with specific disabilities. The assistance provided by an assistive technology is more specific and appropriate to the needs of its target users. The mainstream user agent may provide important functionality to assistive technologies like retrieving Web content from program objects or parsing markup into identifiable bundles.

Assistive technologies that are important in the context of this document include the following:

  • screen magnifiers, and other visual reading assistants, which are used by people with visual, perceptual and physical print disabilities to change text font, size, spacing, color, synchronization with speech, etc. in order to improve the visual readability of rendered text and images
  • screen readers, which are used by people who are blind to read textual information through synthesized speech or braille
  • text-to-speech software, which is used by some people with cognitive, language, and learning disabilities to convert text into synthetic speech
  • speech recognition software, which may be used by people who have some physical disabilities
  • alternative keyboards, which are used by people with certain physical disabilities to simulate the keyboard (including alternate keyboards that use head pointers, single switches, sip/puff and other special input devices.)
  • alternative pointing devices, which are used by people with certain physical disabilities to simulate mouse pointing and button activations.

information and sensory experience to be communicated to the user by means of a user agent, including code or markup that defines the content's structure, presentation, and interactions

language that is spoken, written or signed (through visual or tactile means) to communicate with humans

text that has been rendered in a non-text form (e.g., an image) in order to achieve a particular visual effect

This does not include text that is part of a picture that contains significant other visual content.

A person's name on a nametag in a photograph.

text or other component with a text alternative that is presented to a user to identify a component within Web content

A label is presented to all users whereas the name may be hidden and only exposed by assistive technology. In many (but not all) cases the name and the label are the same.

The term label is not limited to the label element in HTML.

text by which software can identify a component within Web content to the user

The name may be hidden and only exposed by assistive technology, whereas a label is presented to all users. In many (but not all) cases, the label and the name are the same.

This is unrelated to the name attribute in HTML.

any content that is not a sequence of characters that can be programmatically determined or where the sequence is not expressing something in human language

This includes ASCII Art (which is a pattern of characters), emoticons, leetspeak (which uses character substitution), and images representing text

rendering of the content in a form to be perceived by users

determined by software from author-supplied data provided in a way that different user agents, including assistive technologies, can extract and present this information to users in different modalities

Determined in a markup language from elements and attributes that are accessed directly by commonly available assistive technology.

Determined from technology-specific data structures in a non-markup language and exposed to assistive technology via an accessibility API that is supported by commonly available assistive technology.

a language using combinations of movements of the hands and arms, facial expressions, or body positions to convey meaning

  1. The way the parts of a Web page are organized in relation to each other and
  2. The way a collection of Web pages is organized

sequence of characters that can be programmatically determined, where the sequence is expressing something in human language

Text that is programmatically associated with non-text content or referred to from text that is programmatically associated with non-text content. Programmatically associated text is text whose location can be programmatically determined from the non-text content.

An image of a chart is described in text in the paragraph after the chart. The short text alternative for the chart indicates that a description follows.

any software that retrieves and presents Web content for users

Web browsers, media players, plug-ins, and other programs — including assistive technologies — that help in retrieving, rendering, and interacting with Web content.

a part of the content that is perceived by users as a single control for a distinct function

Multiple user interface components may be implemented as a single programmatic element. "Components" here is not tied to programming techniques, but rather to what the user perceives as separate controls.

User interface components include form elements and links as well as components generated by scripts.

What is meant by "component" or "user interface component" here is also sometimes called "user interface element".

An applet has a "control" that can be used to move through content by line or page or random access. Since each of these would need to have a name and be settable independently, they would each be a "user interface component."

a non-embedded resource obtained from a single URI using HTTP plus any other resources that are used in the rendering or intended to be rendered together with it by a user agent

Although any "other resources" would be rendered together with the primary resource, they would not necessarily be rendered simultaneously with each other.

For the purposes of conformance with these guidelines, a resource must be "non-embedded" within the scope of conformance to be considered a Web page.

A Web resource including all embedded images and media.

A Web mail program built using Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX). The program lives entirely at, but includes an inbox, a contacts area and a calendar. Links or buttons are provided that cause the inbox, contacts, or calendar to display, but do not change the URI of the page as a whole.

A customizable portal site, where users can choose content to display from a set of different content modules.

5 Samples Cases of Fair Divorce Settlements:

Ken and Jan

Marital Profile: Ken and Jan have been married for five years and have no children. They both entered into the marriage with established careers, earning similar salaries.

Divorce Settlement: The marital assets are split 50/50 between the spouses. There is no spousal support or child support.

Both Ken and Jan are basically in the same position financially at the end of their marriage that they were before the marriage. Neither has given up their career or lost any income potential during the marriage.

With the advent of no-fault divorce laws, the courts will not take into consideration any bad behavior by either party unless one or the other has caused severe financial distress by spending liquid marital assets. That is not the case in this divorce scenario. It only makes sense that assets be split 50/50 and both spouses move on and rebuild their lives.

Joseph and Karen

Marital Profile: Joseph and Karen have been married for 14 years and have no children. Their marriage is a medium-term marriage where spousal support and an unequal division of marital property may be considered.

Divorce Settlement: The marital assets are split 60/40 in Karen’s favor. There is no spousal support or child support.

Joseph and Karen both have high-paying careers. Joseph makes more than Karen though and has greater earning potential in coming years. Due to the fact that Joseph’s standard of living will continue to increase and Karen’s will stagnate, the judge awards her a higher percentage of the marital assets to offset the loss of benefits Karen enjoyed during the marriage.

Mark and Joan

Marital Profile: Mark and Joan have been married for 26 years and have no children. Both earn high salaries in well-established careers. Joan earns 1/3 more than Mark which makes her the higher earning spouse.

Divorce Settlement: The marital assets are split 50/50 and Joan is ordered to pay Mark rehabilitative spousal support for a term of five years. The long-term marriage established a lifestyle that both Mark and Joan had become accustomed to.

Mark's standard of living will decrease once there is a divorce due to the fact that he makes less than Joan. The two went to mediation and Joan chose to pay temporary spousal support that is deductible at tax time rather than splitting assets in John’s favor.

Jim and Claire

Marital Profile: Jim and Claire have been married for eight years and have two children under the age of six. Claire is a stay-at-home mom who has not worked for six years. Jim has a manufacturing job and earns $52,000 a year.

Divorce Settlement: Jim and Claire will share joint legal custody with residential custody awarded to Claire. Jim pays child support according to state guidelines which are based on the income shares method.

They agree to split 50/50 any expense of sending their children to college and all extracurricular activities while the children are still in primary school. There is a 60/40 division of marital assets in Claire’s favor and she is awarded short-term, rehabilitative spousal support for two years.

Claire will be attending a training program and agreed to be fully employed within a two-year period. At that time child support will be recalculated and lowered due to the increase in Claire’s income and spousal support will end.

Bill and Grace

Marital Profile: Bill and Grace have been married for 16 years with two teenage children. Grace has been a stay-at-home mom for fourteen years Bill has an executive position and earns a six-figure salary.

Divorce Settlement: Grace is awarded the marital home and all equity in the home. The equity in the home is deducted from other marital assets and there is a 50/50 deduction of the remainder between both spouses.

Grace is awarded spousal support for a length of ten years. She is awarded half of Bill’s retirement benefits and since she will retain custody of the children is awarded child support according to state guidelines.

Grace wanted the marital home because the equity in the home is more than she could have gotten if there has been a basic 50/50 split in marital assets. She also wanted to remain in the home her children had grown up in until they graduated from high school. Since the home will appreciate in value Grace has an asset that she can one day liquidate.

Bill had no interest in the marital home. He was more interested in the assets that could be liquidated immediately should the need arise. They both agreed that Bill would continue to pay into their children’s college savings funds.

When negotiating a divorce settlement it's imperative that you understand that "equal" doesn't mean a 50/50 split. Equal means what is fair to both parties involved. You won't get everything you believe you are entitled to and, you will need to be able to compromise for the sake of all involved.

Lance and Katy

Marital Profile: Lance and Katy have been married for eleven years and have a small child. Katy is the CEO of a non-profit organization, she earns a substantial salary. During her career, Katy has done extensive traveling which made it necessary for Lance to quit his job and become a stay-at-home dad.

Divorce Settlement: Lance and Katy will share joint, legal custody with residential custody going to Lance. Lance was awarded the marital home and all equity in the home. He was also awarded spousal support for a period of five years and child support based on state child support guidelines.

Katy fought for custody and against spousal support. Lance was able to give evidence during divorce court that showed Katy had little interest in her children and would not be able to care for them due to her work/travel schedule.

The marital assets were split 60/40 in Lance’s favor because the judge felt that Lance, being the lower income earner and caretaker of their children should continue to live the standard of living he and his children had become accustomed to.

Lance will have the opportunity to continue in his role as a full-time father, rebuild his own career and one day earn an income equal to or greater than that of Katy. Until then Katy is responsible for taking care of the people she left behind.

There can be a huge difference between an equitable divorce settlement and a fair divorce settlement. When negotiating your divorce settlement the outcome is based on many factors. The courts will take into consideration standard of living and the long-term needs of a spouse if you, the one going through the divorce demands your divorce attorney fight for what is “fair.”

Dramaturgy and Impression Management

From a sociological standpoint, much of our social interaction can be understood by likening it to a performance in a play. As with so many things, Shakespeare said it best when he wrote,

All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players.
They have their exits and their entrances
And one man in his time plays many parts. (As You Like It, Act II, Scene 7)

From this perspective, each individual has many parts or roles to play in society, and many of these roles specify how we should interact in any given situation. These roles exist before we are born, and they continue long after we die. The culture of society is thus similar to the script of a play. Just as actors in a play learn what lines to say, where to stand on the stage, how to position their bodies, and so many other things, so do we learn as members of society the roles that specify how we should interact.

This fundamental metaphor was developed and popularized by sociologist Erving Goffman (1959) in what he called a dramaturgical approach . By this he meant that we can understand social interaction as if it were a theatrical performance. People who interact are actors on a stage, the things they say and do are equivalent to the parts actors play, and any people who observe their interaction are equivalent to the audience at a play. As sociologists Jonathan H. Turner and Jan E. Stets (2006, p. 26) summarize this approach, “Individuals are, in essence, dramatic actors on a stage playing parts dictated by culture, and, like all theater, they are given some dramatic license in how they play roles, as long as they do not deviate too far from the emotional script provided by culture.”

Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical approach likened social interaction to acting in a theatrical performance.

Beyond these aspects of his theatrical analogy, Goffman also stressed that the presentation of self guides social interaction just as it guides behavior in a play. Actors in a play, he wrote, aim to act properly, which at a minimum means they need to say their lines correctly and in other ways carry out their parts as they were written. They try to convey the impression of their character the playwright had in mind when the play was written and the director has in mind when the play is presented.

Such impression management , Goffman wrote, also guides social interaction in everyday life. When people interact, they routinely try to convey a positive impression of themselves to the people with whom they interact. Our behavior in a job interview differs dramatically (pun intended) from our behavior at a party. The key dimension of social interaction, then, involves trying to manage the impressions we convey to the people with whom we interact. We usually do our best, consciously or unconsciously, to manage the impressions we convey to others and so to evoke from them reactions that will please us.

Goffman wrote about other aspects of social interaction that affect our efforts to manage these impressions. Again using his dramaturgical metaphor, he said that some interaction occurs in the “frontstage,” or front region, while other interaction occurs in the “backstage,” or back region (Goffman, 1959, p. 128). In a play, of course, the frontstage is what the audience sees and is obviously the location in which the actors are performing their lines. Backstage, they can do whatever they want, and the audience will have no idea of what they are doing (as long as they are quiet). Much of our everyday interaction is on the frontstage, where an audience can see everything we do and hear everything we say. But we also spend a lot of time on the backstage, by ourselves, when we can do and say things in private (such as singing in the shower) that we would not dare do or say in public.

Social interaction involves impression management. How a student behaves with a professor is probably very different from how the same student behaves when out on the town with friends.

How we dress is also a form of impression management. You are the same person regardless of what clothes you wear, but if you dress for a job interview as you would dress for a party (to use our earlier example), the person interviewing you would get an impression you might not want to convey. If you showed up for a medical visit and your physician were wearing a bathing suit, wouldn’t you feel just a bit uneasy?

Sociology Making a Difference

Impression Management and Job Interviewing

Erving Goffman’s (1959) concept of impression management, discussed in the text, is one of the key sociological insights for the understanding of social interaction. One reason the concept has been so useful, and one reason that it interests many college students, is that impression management has so much practical relevance. Anyone who has gone out on a first date or had a job interview can immediately recognize that impression management is something we all do and can immediately realize the importance of effective impression management.

Impression management is important in many settings and situations but perhaps especially important in the job interview. Many scholarly publications and job-hunting manuals emphasize the importance of proper impression management during a job interview, especially an interview for a full-time, well-paying job, as opposed to a fast-food job or something similar (Van Iddekinge, McFarland, & Raymark, 2007). The strategies they discuss include impression management involving dress, body language, and other dimensions of social interaction. Interviewing tips they recommend include (a) dressing professionally, (b) showing up early for the interview, (c) shaking hands firmly while smiling and looking the interviewer in the eye, (d) sitting with a comfortable but erect posture without crossing one’s arms, (e) maintaining eye contact with the interviewer throughout the interview, and (f) shaking hands at the end of the interview and saying thank you.

These strategies and tips are probably more familiar to college students from wealthy backgrounds than to working-class people who have not gone to college. Sociologists emphasize the importance of cultural capital, or attitudes, skills, and knowledge that enable people to achieve a higher social status (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1990). People who grow up in poverty or near-poverty, including disproportionate numbers of people of color, are less likely than those who grow up in much wealthier circumstances to possess cultural capital. The attitudes, skills, and knowledge that many college students have and take for granted, including how to conduct oneself during a job interview, are much less familiar to individuals who grow up without cultural capital. To use some sociological language, they know much less about how to manage their impressions during a job interview should they get one and thus are less likely to be hired after an interview.

For this reason, many public and private agencies in poor and working-class communities around the country regularly hold workshops on job interviewing skills. These workshops emphasize strategies similar to those outlined earlier. One of the many organizations that offer these workshops and provides related services is the Los Angeles Urban League ( through its Milken Family Literacy and Youth Training Center. According to its Web site, this center “provides a comprehensive system of services of programs and services to assist youth and adults in developing the skills to compete for and obtain meaningful employment.” Much of what the youth and adults who attend its workshops and other programs are learning is impression-management skills that help them find employment. Goffman’s concept is helping make a difference.

Individuals engage in impression management, but so do groups and organizations. Consider the medical visit just mentioned. A physician’s office usually “looks” a certain way. It is clean, it has carpeting, it has attractive furniture, and it has magazines such as People, Time, and Sports Illustrated. Such an office assures patients by conveying the impression that the physician and staff are competent professionals. Imagine that you entered a physician’s office and saw torn carpeting, some broken furniture, and magazines such as Maxim and Playboy. What would be your instant reaction? How soon would you turn around and leave the office? As this fanciful example illustrates, impression management is critically important for groups and organizations as well as for individuals.

Impression management occurs with physical settings. These two eating establishments convey very different impressions of the quality of food and service that diners can expect.

Life is filled with impression management. Compare the decor of your favorite fast-food restaurant with that of a very expensive restaurant with which you might be familiar. Compare the appearance, dress, and demeanor of the servers and other personnel in the two establishments. The expensive restaurant is trying to convey an image that the food will be wonderful and that the time you spend there will be memorable and well worth the money. The fast-food restaurant is trying to convey just the opposite impression. In fact, if it looked too fancy, you would probably think it was too expensive.

Some people go to great efforts to manage the impressions they convey. You have probably done so in a job interview or on a date. In New York City, the capital of book publishing, editors of large publishing companies and “superagents” for authors are very conscious of the impressions they convey, because much of the publishing industry depends on gossip, impressions, and the development of rapport. Editors and agents often dine together in one of a few very expensive “power” restaurants, where their presence is certain to be noted. Publishers or senior editors who dine at these restaurants will eat only with celebrity authors, other senior editors or publishers, or important agents. Such agents rarely dine with junior editors, who are only “allowed” to eat with junior agents. To eat with someone “beneath” your standing would convey the wrong impression (Arnold, 1998).


A common example of cultural diversity in the workplace is a multilingual workforce. Language diversity can introduce communication complications, but can also provide benefits for your business. Potential customers may leave your business because the staff can't understand their orders. Linguistic diversity helps you project a clear image of inclusion to the public. A multilingual staff can help ensure clarity of message when addressing a culturally complex world and when you want to target a diverse marketplace.

Age is often overlooked when considering workplace diversity but can be a point of major divergence in experience and knowledge. Consider the common stereotype that younger people are more tech savvy, whereas older people are opposed to contemporary trends. Even if this is the case, this range of perspectives allows for a more dynamic business approach than one perspective could on its own. In companies where the stereotype is standard, you can benefit from both the experience and insight of older employees and technical implementation from the younger staff.

Becoming a Better Contextual Listener

Active, critical, and empathetic listening skills can be helpful in a variety of contexts. Understanding the role that listening plays in professional, relational, cultural, and gendered contexts can help us more competently apply these skills. Whether we are listening to or evaluating messages from a supervisor, parent, or intercultural conversational partner, we have much to gain or lose based on our ability to apply listening skills and knowledge in various contexts.

3-4-4-3 custody schedule

The 3-4-4-3 schedule allots 3 days with the child to the first parent, then 4 days to the other parent. Then, custody goes back to the first parent who gets 4 days, before the other parent closes out the cycle with 3 days. This cycle repeats every two weeks. It looks like this in the calendar:

One parent gets 50.3% of the timeshare while the other parent gets 49.7%.

2-2-3 custody schedule

The 2-2-3 child custody schedule is very simple and easy to understand. With this schedule, your child will spend the first two nights of the week with you, the second two nights with the other parent, and the three weekend nights back with you. The following week the schedule changes so the second parent gets your child at the beginning and end of the week.

This schedule is great because it is easy to implement. Many parents like the simplicity and ease in having this schedule. It also allows the child to spend time at both parents home each week while rotating weekends.

Your child will go back and forth a few times so you want to make sure they can handle frequent exchanges and completing homework on time. Some children struggle with this since they may feel like a visitor and not a part of the home or family. You need to know your child and choose what will work best for them.

This 8 hour shift schedule can be used in any department but we have seen it used by departments sized 25-50 people.

It uses 3 templates and 3 squads to cover day, mid and night shift.

Repeat for 2 more squads with different shift times ( mids and nights) to cover 24x7.

Pros and cons to using 8 hour shifts:

  • Average work day hours - officers are less likely to get fatigued
  • Better work/life balance
  • Fair to employees if you rotate shift times
  • Fewer errors made on duty
  • More days on duty (comparing to 10 or 12 hour shifts)
  • Requires 3 shifts to cover the whole day
  • Commuting more days vs.10 or 12 hr shifts

While these officer scheduling examples are in the format of Word or Excel, they can all be handled with Scheduling Templates in officer scheduling software.

Using templates in scheduling software will allow you to publish the schedules for as long as you need to.

You can also switch employees from one template to another easily.

To learn more about features in law enforcement scheduling software, please click here.

Want to take these examples with you?

Download the 8 hour schedule examples in a PDF for sharing and printing below!

Watch the video: Minor Upgrades Create Crazy Power on a Junkyard Vortec - Engine Power S7, E10 (June 2022).


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