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Clarice Lucia Schneider
The content of this work was developed by the academic Clarice Lúcia Schneider of the Pedagogy course modality Degree for the Early Years of Elementary School Open and Distance of the Institute of Education of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, to complete the area of Mathematics. We are concerned to discuss how the teaching-learning process of mathematics should happen in the students of early grades as a construction of logical-mathematical thinking, awakening in it the spirit of research, and providing basic elements for their participation in life. in society.
Working with concrete material, which makes you create and solve problem situations that are closer to your reality. For today, we understand that a quality education is only achieved by the student if the teacher leads him to reflect on situations that surrounds them in their real world, seeking to make this student glimpse the learning of mathematics. For many students the teaching of mathematics is unattractive because they fail to understand it, perhaps because we, the teachers in the early grades of elementary school, cannot draw your attention to the beauty of geometric shapes, architectural works, and so on. After studying this area of human knowledge, we understand that in order to achieve these goals in our student, we teachers must make the classroom a laboratory, always raising problem situations that instigate them.
At the beginning of his school life, the child begins the process of literacy, not only in his native language but also in the mathematical language, building his knowledge according to the different stages of cognitive development; Good teaching at this level is critical.
… Children's learning begins long before they attend school. Any learning situation that a child faces in school always has a prior history. For example, children begin to study arithmetic at school, but long before they had any experience with quantities - they had to deal with division, addition, subtraction and size determination operations. Consequently, children have their own preschool arithmetic, which only nearsighted psychologists can ignore (VYGOTSKY, 1989, p. 94-95).
The process of teaching and learning mathematics should be well worked in schools, so that in the future the students do not present serious difficulties regarding the poor construction of logical-abstract thinking.
Nowadays the teaching of mathematics is decontextualized, inflexible and unchanging, being the product of privileged minds. The student is often a mere bystander and not a participant subject, and the teachers' greatest concern is to comply with the program. The contents and methodology are not articulated with the objectives of a teaching that serves the social insertion of children, the development of their potential, their expression and interaction with the environment.
The use of playful techniques: games, toys and pedagogically directed games in the classroom can stimulate students to build logical-mathematical thinking significantly and social coexistence, because the student, acting in a team, surpasses, at least in part, its natural self-centeredness. Pedagogical games, for example, can be used as a didactic strategy before presenting new mathematical content to arouse the child's interest, or at the end to reinforce learning.Continues after advertising
A very important methodological caution that the teacher needs to take before working with classroom games is to test them by analyzing their own moves and reflecting on possible mistakes; This will enable you to understand any difficulties students may face. However, we must be especially careful when choosing games, which should be interesting and challenging. The content must be in accordance with the degree of development and at the same time as possible resolution, so the game should not be too easy and not so difficult, so that the students are not discouraged (BORIN, 1995).
As stated by FIORENTINI and MIORIM (1996),
The teacher cannot subjugate his teaching methodology to some kind of material because he is attractive or playful. No material is valid by itself. Materials and their use should always be in the background. Simply introducing games or activities in math education does not guarantee a better learning of this subject (p.9).
Working with math in the classroom is a challenge for the teacher as it requires them to lead them in a meaningful and stimulating way for the student. Generally the references the teacher has regarding this subject come from his personal experience. Many of them claim that they had difficulty with that traditionally taught mathematics in schools, which aimed to convey rules through intensive exercise. Then we have to find new ways to work with mathematics, so that people realize that we think mathematically all the time, solve problems at various times of the day, and are invited to think logically on a daily basis. Mathematics, therefore, is part of life and can be learned in a dynamic, challenging and fun way.