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3A.7E: Exercises

3A.7E: Exercises



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Practice Makes Perfect

Multiply Monomials

In the following exercises, multiply the monomials.

1. ⓐ ((6y^7)(−3y^4)) ⓑ ((frac{4}{7}rs^2)(frac{1}{4}rs^3))

2. ⓐ ((−10x^5)(−3x^3)) ⓑ ((58x^3y)(24x^5y))

Answer

ⓐ(30x^8) ⓑ (15x^8y^2)

3. ⓐ ((−8u^6)(−9u)) ⓑ ((frac{2}{3}x^2y)(frac{3}{4}xy^2))

4. ⓐ ((−6c^4)(−12c)) ⓑ ((frac{3}{5}m^3n^2)(frac{5}{9}m^2n^3))

Answer

ⓐ (72c^5) ⓑ (frac{1}{3}m^5n^5)

Multiply a Polynomial by a Monomial

In the following exercises, multiply.

5. ⓐ(−8x(x^2+2x−15)) ⓑ (5pq^3(p^2−2pq+6q^2))

6. ⓐ (−5t(t^2+3t−18)) ⓑ (9r^3s(r^2−3rs+5s^2))

Answer

ⓐ (−5t^3−15t^2+90t)
ⓑ (9sr^5−27s^2r^4+45s^3r^3)

7. ⓐ (−8y(y^2+2y−15)) ⓑ (−4y^2z^2(3y^2+12yz−z^2))

8. ⓐ (−5m(m^2+3m−18)) ⓑ (−3x^2y^2(7x^2+10xy−y^2))

Answer

ⓐ (−5m^3−15m^2+90m)
ⓑ (−21x^4y^2−30x^3y^3+3x^2y^4)

Multiply a Binomial by a Binomial

In the following exercises, multiply the binomials using ⓐ the Distributive Property; ⓑ the FOIL method; ⓒ the Vertical Method.

9. ((w+5)(w+7))

10. ((y+9)(y+3))

Answer

(y^2+12y+27)

11. ((4p+11)(5p−4))

12. ((7q+4)(3q−8))

Answer

(21q^2−44q−32)

In the following exercises, multiply the binomials. Use any method.

13. ((x+8)(x+3))

14. ((y−6)(y−2))

Answer

(y^2−8y+12)

15. ((2t−9)(10t+1))

16. ((6p+5)(p+1))

Answer

(6p^2+11p+5)

17. ((q−5)(q+8))

18. ((m+11)(m−4))

Answer

(m^2+7m−44)

19. ((7m+1)(m−3))

20. ((3r−8)(11r+1))

Answer

(33r^2−85r−8)

21. ((x^2+3)(x+2))

22. ((y^2−4)(y+3))

Answer

(y^3+3y^2−4y−12)

23. ((5ab−1)(2ab+3))

24. ((2xy+3)(3xy+2))

Answer

(6x^2y^2+13xy+6)

25. ((x^2+8)(x^2−5))

26. ((y^2−7)(y^2−4))

Answer

(y^4−11y^2+28)

27. ((6pq−3)(4pq−5))

28. ((3rs−7)(3rs−4))

Answer

(9r^2s^2−33rs+28)

Multiply a Polynomial by a Polynomial

In the following exercises, multiply using ⓐ the Distributive Property; ⓑ the Vertical Method.

29. ((x+5)(x^2+4x+3))

30. ((u+4)(u^2+3u+2))

Answer

(u^3+7u^2+14u+8)

31. ((y+8)(4y^2+y−7))

32. ((a+10)(3a^2+a−5))

Answer

(3a^3+31a^2+5a−50)

33. ((y^2−3y+8)(4y^2+y−7))

34. ((2a^2−5a+10)(3a^2+a−5))

Answer

(6a^4−13a^3+15a^2+35a−50)

Multiply Special Products

In the following exercises, multiply. Use either method.

35. ((w−7)(w^2−9w+10))

36. ((p−4)(p^2−6p+9))

Answer

(p^3−10p^2+33p−36)

37. ((3q+1)(q^2−4q−5))

38. ((6r+1)(r^2−7r−9))

Answer

(6r^3−41r^2−61r−9)

In the following exercises, square each binomial using the Binomial Squares Pattern.

39. ((w+4)^2)

40. ((q+12)^2)

Answer

(q^2+24q+144)

41. ((3x−y)^2)

42. ((2y−3z)^2)

Answer

(4y^2−12yz+9z^2)

43. ((y+frac{1}{4})^2)

44. ((x+frac{2}{3})^2)

Answer

(x^2+frac{4}{3}x+frac{4}{9})

45. ((frac{1}{5}x−frac{1}{7}y)^2)

46. ((frac{1}{8}x−frac{1}{9}y)^2)

Answer

(frac{1}{64}x^2−frac{1}{36}xy+frac{1}{81}y^2)

47. ((3x^2+2)^2)

48. ((5u^2+9)^2)

Answer

(25u^4+90u^2+81)

49. ((4y3−2)2)

50. ((8p3−3)2)

Answer

(64p^6−48p^3+9)

In the following exercises, multiply each pair of conjugates using the Product of Conjugates Pattern.

51. ((5k+6)(5k−6))

52. ((8j+4)(8j−4))

Answer

(64j^2−16)

53. ((11k+4)(11k−4))

54. ((9c+5)(9c−5))

Answer

(81c^2−25)

55. ((9c−2d)(9c+2d))

56. ((7w+10x)(7w−10x))

Answer

(49w^2−100x^2)

57. ((m+frac{2}{3}n)(m−frac{2}{3}n))

58. ((p+frac{4}{5}q)(p−frac{4}{5}q))

Answer

(p^2−frac{16}{25}q^2)

59. ((ab−4)(ab+4))

60. ((xy−9)(xy+9))

Answer

(x^2y^2−81)

61. ((12p^3−11q^2)(12p^3+11q^2))

62. ((15m^2−8n^4)(15m^2+8n^4))

Answer

(225m^4−64n^8)

In the following exercises, find each product.

63. ((p−3)(p+3))

64. ((t−9)^2)

Answer

(t^2−18t+81)

65. ((m+n)^2)

66. ((2x+y)(x−2y))

Answer

(2x^2−3xy−2y^2)

67. ((2r+12)^2)

68. ((3p+8)(3p−8))

Answer

(9p^2−64)

69. ((7a+b)(a−7b))

70. ((k−6)^2)

Answer

(k^2−12k+36)

71. ((a^5−7b)^2)

72. ((x^2+8y)(8x−y^2))

Answer

(8x^3−x^2y^2+64xy−8y^3)

73. ((r^6+s^6)(r^6−s^6))

74. ((y^4+2z)^2)

Answer

(y^8+4y^4z+4z^2)

75. ((x^5+y^5)(x^5−y^5))

76. ((m^3−8n)^2)

Answer

(m^6−16m^3n+64n^2)

77. ((9p+8q)^2)

78. ((r^2−s^3)(r^3+s^2))

Answer

(r^5+r^2s^2−r^3s^3−s^5)

Mixed Practice

79. ((10y−6)+(4y−7))

80. ((15p−4)+(3p−5))

Answer

(18p−9)

81. ((x^2−4x−34)−(x^2+7x−6))

82. ((j^2−8j−27)−(j^2+2j−12))

Answer

(−10j−15)

83. ((frac{1}{5}f^8)(20f^3))

84. ((frac{1}{4}d^5)(36d^2))

Answer

(9d^7)

85. ((4a^3b)(9a^2b^6))

86. ((6m^4n^3)(7mn^5))

Answer

(72m^5n^8)

87. (−5m(m^2+3m−18))

88. (5q^3(q^2−2q+6))

Answer

(5q^5−10q^4+30q^3)

89. ((s−7)(s+9))

90. ((y^2−2y)(y+1))

Answer

(y^3−y^2−2y)

91. ((5x−y)(x−4))

92. ((6k−1)(k^2+2k−4))

Answer

(6k^3−11k^2−26k+4)

93. ((3x−11y)(3x−11y))

94. ((11−b)(11+b))

Answer

(121−b^2)

95. ((rs−frac{2}{7})(rs+frac{2}{7}))

96. ((2x^2−3y^4)(2x^2+3y^4))

Answer

(4x^4−9y^8)

97. ((m−15)^2)

98. ((3d+1)^2)

Answer

(9d^2+6d+1)

99. ((4a+10)^2)

100. ((3z+15)^2)

Answer

(9z^2−frac{6}{5}z+frac{1}{25})

Multiply Polynomial Functions

101. For functions (f(x)=x+2) and (g(x)=3x^2−2x+4), find ⓐ ((f·g)(x)) ⓑ ((f·g)(−1))

102. For functions (f(x)=x−1) and (g(x)=4x^2+3x−5), find ⓐ ((f·g)(x)) ⓑ ((f·g)(−2))

Answer

ⓐ ((f·g)(x)=4x^3−x^2−8x+5)
ⓑ ((f·g)(−2)=−15)

103. For functions (f(x)=2x−7) and (g(x)=2x+7), find ⓐ ((f·g)(x)) ⓑ ((f·g)(−3))

104. For functions (f(x)=7x−8) and (g(x)=7x+8), find ⓐ ((f·g)(x)) ⓑ ((f·g)(−2))

Answer

ⓐ ((f·g)(x)=49x^2−64)
ⓑ ((f·g)(−2)=187)

105. For functions (f(x)=x^2−5x+2) and (g(x)=x^2−3x−1), find ⓐ ((f·g)(x)) ⓑ ((f·g)(−1))

106. For functions (f(x)=x^2+4x−3) and (g(x)=x^2+2x+4), find ⓐ ((f·g)(x)) ⓑ ((f·g)(1))

Answer

ⓐ ((f·g)(x)=x^4+6x^3+9x^2+10x−12) ⓑ ((f·g)(1)=14)

Writing Exercises

107. Which method do you prefer to use when multiplying two binomials: the Distributive Property or the FOIL method? Why? Which method do you prefer to use when multiplying a polynomial by a polynomial: the Distributive Property or the Vertical Method? Why?

108. Multiply the following:

((x+2)(x−2))

((y+7)(y−7))

((w+5)(w−5))

Explain the pattern that you see in your answers.

Answer

Answers will vary.

109. Multiply the following:

((p+3)(p+3))

((q+6)(q+6))

((r+1)(r+1))

Explain the pattern that you see in your answers.

110. Why does ((a+b)^2) result in a trinomial, but ((a−b)(a+b)) result in a binomial?

Answer

Answers will vary.

Self Check

ⓐ After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

ⓑ What does this checklist tell you about your mastery of this section? What steps will you take to improve?


Paralytic illness of Franklin D. Roosevelt

The paralytic illness of Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945) began in 1921 when the future president of the United States was 39 years old. His main symptoms were fever symmetric, ascending paralysis facial paralysis bowel and bladder dysfunction numbness and hyperesthesia and a descending pattern of recovery. Roosevelt was left permanently paralyzed from the waist down. He was diagnosed with poliomyelitis. In 1926, Roosevelt's belief in the benefits of hydrotherapy led him to found a rehabilitation center at Warm Springs, Georgia. He avoided being seen using his wheelchair in public, but his disability was well known and became a major part of his image. In 1938, he founded the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, leading to the development of polio vaccines.


Contents

In the mid-14th century, Murad I built an army of slaves, referred to as the Kapıkulu. The new force was based on the Sultan's right to a fifth of the war booty, which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. The captives were trained in the sultan's personal service. [10] The devşirme system could be considered a form of slavery because the Sultans had absolute power over them. However, as the 'servant' or 'kul' of the sultan, they had high status within the Ottoman society because of their training and knowledge. They could become the highest officers of the state and the military elite, and most recruits were privileged and remunerated. Though ordered to cut all ties with their families, a few succeeded in dispensing patronage at home. Christian parents might thus implore, or even bribe, officials to take their sons. Indeed, Bosnian and Albanian Muslims successfully requested their inclusion in the system. [11] [12]

Slaves were traded in special marketplaces called "Esir" or "Yesir" that were located in most towns and cities, central to the Ottoman Empire. It is said that Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror" established the first Ottoman slave market in Constantinople in the 1460s, probably where the former Byzantine slave market had stood. According to Nicolas de Nicolay, there were slaves of all ages and both sexes, most were displayed naked to be thoroughly checked – especially children and young women – by possible buyers. [13]

In the devşirme, which connotes "draft", "blood tax" or "child collection", young Christian boys from the Balkans and Anatolia were taken from their homes and families, converted to Islam, and enlisted into the most famous branch of the Kapıkulu, the Janissaries, a special soldier class of the Ottoman army that became a decisive faction in the Ottoman invasions of Europe. [14] Most of the military commanders of the Ottoman forces, imperial administrators, and de facto rulers of the Empire, such as Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, were recruited in this way. [15] [16] By 1609, the Sultan's Kapıkulu forces increased to about 100,000. [17]

A Hutterite chronicle reports that in 1605, during the Long Turkish War, some 240 Hutterites were abducted from their homes in Upper Hungary by the Ottoman Turkish army and their Tatar allies, and sold into Ottoman slavery. [18] [19] Many worked in the palace or for the Sultan personally.

Domestic slavery was not as common as military slavery. [17] On the basis of a list of estates belonging to members of the ruling class kept in Edirne between 1545 and 1659, the following data was collected: out of 93 estates, 41 had slaves. [17] The total number of slaves in the estates was 140 54 female and 86 male. 134 of them bore Muslim names, 5 were not defined, and 1 was a Christian woman. Some of these slaves appear to have been employed on farms. [17] In conclusion, the ruling class, because of extensive use of warrior slaves and because of its own high purchasing capacity, was undoubtedly the single major group keeping the slave market alive in the Ottoman Empire. [17]

Rural slavery was largely a phenomenon endemic to the Caucasus region, which was carried to Anatolia and Rumelia after the Circassian migration in 1864. [20] Conflicts frequently emerged within the immigrant community and the Ottoman Establishment intervened on the side of the slaves at selective times. [21]

The Crimean Khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East until the early eighteenth century. In a series of slave raids euphemistically known as the "harvesting of the steppe", Crimean Tatars enslaved East Slavic peasants. [22] The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russia suffered a series of Tatar invasions, the goal of which was to loot, pillage, and capture slaves, the Slavic languages even developed a term for the Ottoman slavery (Polish: jasyr, based on Turkish and Arabic words for capture - esir or asir). [23] [24] The borderland area to the south-east was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century. It is estimated that up to 75% of the Crimean population consisted of slaves or freed slaves. [25] The 17th century Ottoman writer and traveller Evliya Çelebi estimated that there were about 400,000 slaves in the Crimea but only 187,000 free Muslims. [26] Polish historian Bohdan Baranowski assumed that in the 17th century the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (present-day Poland, Ukraine and Belarus) lost an average of 20,000 yearly and as many as one million in all years combined from 1500 to 1644. [26]

Prices and taxes Edit

A study of the slave market of Ottoman Crete produces details about the prices of slaves. Factors such as age, skin color, virginity etc. significantly influenced prices. The most expensive slaves were those between 10 and 35 years of age, with the highest prices for European virgin girls 13–25 years of age and teenaged boys. The cheaper slaves were those with disabilities and sub-Saharan Africans. Prices in Crete ranged between 65 and 150 "esedi guruş" (see Kuruş). But even the lowest prices were affordable to only high income persons. For example, in 1717 a 12-year-old boy with mental disabilities was sold for 27 guruş, an amount that could buy in the same year 462 kg (1,019 lb) of lamb meat, 933 kg (2,057 lb) of bread or 1,385 l (366 US gal) of milk. In 1671 a female slave was sold in Crete for 350 guruş, while at the same time the value of a large two-floor house with a garden in Chania was 300 guruş. There were various taxes to be paid on the importation and selling of slaves. One of them was the "pençik" or "penç-yek" tax, literally meaning "one fifth". This taxation was based on verses of the Quran, according to which one fifth of the spoils of war belonged to God, to the Prophet and his family, to orphans, to those in need and to travelers. The Ottomans probably started collecting pençik at the time of Sultan Murad I (1362–1389). Pençik was collected both in money and in kind, the latter including slaves as well. Tax was not collected in some cases of war captives. With war captives, slaves were given to soldiers and officers as a motive to participate in war. [2]

The recapture of runaway slaves was a job for private individuals called "yavacis". Whoever managed to find a runaway slave would collect a fee of "good news" from the yavaci and the latter took this fee plus other expenses from the slaves' owner. Slaves could also be rented, inherited, pawned, exchanged or given as gifts. [2] [27]

For centuries, large vessels on the Mediterranean relied on European galley slaves supplied by Ottoman and Barbary slave traders. Hundreds of thousands of Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries. [28] [29] These slave raids were conducted largely by Arabs and Berbers rather than Ottoman Turks. However, during the height of the Barbary slave trade in the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries, the Barbary states were subject to Ottoman jurisdiction and for exception of Morocco were ruled by Ottoman pashas. Furthermore, many slaves captured by the Barbary corsairs were sold eastward into Ottoman territories before, during, and after Barbary's period of Ottoman rule. [30] [31]

Notable occasions include the Turkish Abductions

As there were restrictions on the enslavement of Muslims and of "People of the Book" (Jews and Christians) living under Muslim rule, pagan areas in Africa became a popular source of slaves. Known as the Zanj (Bantu [32] ), these slaves originated mainly from the African Great Lakes region as well as from Central Africa. [33] The Zanj were employed in households, on plantations and in the army as slave-soldiers. Some could ascend to become high-rank officials, but in general Zanj were inferior to European and Caucasian slaves. [34] [ failed verification ] [35] [ need quotation to verify ]

One way for Zanj slaves to serve in high-ranking roles involved becoming one of the African eunuchs of the Ottoman palace. [36] This position was used as a political tool by Sultan Murad III ( r . 1574–1595 ) as an attempt to destabilize the Grand Vizier by introducing another source of power to the capital. [37]

After being purchased by a member of the Ottoman court, Mullah Ali was introduced to the first chief Black eunuch, Mehmed Aga. [38] Due to Mehmed Aga's influence, Mullah Ali was able to make connections with prominent colleges and tutors of the day, including Hoca Sadeddin Efendi (1536/37-1599), the tutor of Murad III. [39] Through the network he had built with the help of his education and the black eunuchs, Mullah Ali secured several positions early on. He worked as a teacher in Istanbul, a deputy judge, and an inspector of royal endowments. [38] In 1620, Mullah Ali was appointed as chief judge of the capital and in 1621 he became the kadiasker, or chief judge, of the European provinces and the first black man to sit on the imperial council. [40] At this time, he had risen to such power that a French ambassador described him as the person who truly ran the empire. [38]

Although Mullah Ali was often challenged because of his blackness and his connection to the African eunuchs, he was able to defend himself through his powerful network of support and his own intellectual productions. As a prominent scholar, he wrote an influential book in which he used logic and the Quran to debunk stereotypes and prejudice against dark-skinned people and to delegitimize arguments for why Africans should be slaves. [41]

Today, thousands of Afro Turks, the descendants of the Zanj slaves in the Ottoman Empire, continue to live in modern Turkey. An Afro-Turk, Mustafa Olpak, founded the first officially recognised organisation of Afro-Turks, the Africans' Culture and Solidarity Society (Afrikalılar Kültür ve Dayanışma Derneği) in Ayvalık. Olpak claims that about 2,000 Afro-Turks live in modern Turkey. [42] [43]

The Upper Nile Valley and Abyssinia were also significant sources of slaves in the Ottoman Empire. Although the Christian Abyssinians defeated the Ottoman invaders, they did not tackle enslavement of southern pagans as long as they were paid taxes by the slave traders. Pagans and muslims from southern Ethiopian areas such as kaffa and jimma were taken north to Ottoman Egypt and also to ports on the Red Sea for export to Arabia and the Persian Gulf. In 1838, it was estimated that 10,000 to 12,000 slaves were arriving in Egypt annually using this route. [44] A significant number of these slaves were young women, and European travelers in the region recorded seeing large numbers of Ethiopian slaves in the Arab world at the time. The Swiss traveler Johann Louis Burckhardt estimated that 5,000 Ethiopian slaves passed through the port of Suakin alone every year, [45] headed for Arabia, and added that most of them were young women who ended up being prostituted by their owners. The English traveler Charles M. Doughty later (in the 1880s) also recorded Ethiopian slaves in Arabia, and stated that they were brought to Arabia every year during the Hajj pilgrimage. [46] In some cases, female Ethiopian slaves were preferred to male ones, with some Ethiopian slave cargoes recording female-to-male slave ratios of two to one. [47]

Very little is actually known about the Imperial Harem, and much of what is thought to be known is actually conjecture and imagination. [48] There are two main reasons for the lack of accurate accounts on this subject. The first was the barrier imposed by the people of the Ottoman society – the Ottoman people did not know much about the machinations of the Imperial Harem themselves, due to it being physically impenetrable, and because the silence of insiders was enforced. [48] The second was that any accounts from this period were from European travelers, who were both not privy to the information, and also inherently presented a Western bias and potential for misinterpretation by being outsiders to the Ottoman culture. [48] Despite the acknowledged biases by many of these sources themselves, scandalous stories of the Imperial Harem and the sexual practices of the sultans were popular, even if they were not true. [48] Accounts from the seventeenth century drew from both a newer, seventeenth century trend as well as a more traditional style of history-telling they presented the appearance of debunking previous accounts and exposing new truths, while proceeding to propagate old tales as well as create new ones. [48] However, European accounts from captives who served as pages in the imperial palace, and the reports, dispatches, and letters of ambassadors resident in Istanbul, their secretaries, and other members of their suites proved to be more reliable than other European sources. [48] And further, of this group of more reliable sources, the writings of the Venetians in the sixteenth century surpassed all others in volume, comprehensiveness, sophistication, and accuracy. [48]

The concubines of the Ottoman Sultan consisted chiefly of purchased slaves. The Sultan's concubines were generally of Christian origin (usually European or Circassian). Most of the elites of the Harem Ottoman Empire included many women, such as the sultan's mother, preferred concubines, royal concubines, children (princes/princess), and administrative personnel. The administrative personnel of the palace were made up of many high-ranking women officers, they were responsible for the training of Jariyes for domestic chores. [48] [49] The mother of a Sultan, though technically a slave, received the extremely powerful title of Valide Sultan which raised her to the status of a ruler of the Empire (see Sultanate of Women). The mother of the Sultan played a substantial role in decision-making for the Imperial Harem. One notable example was Kösem Sultan, daughter of a Greek Christian priest, who dominated the Ottoman Empire during the early decades of the 17th century. [50] Roxelana (also known as Hürrem Sultan), another notable example, was the favorite wife of Suleiman the Magnificent. [51] Many historians who study the Ottoman Empire, rely on the factual evidence of observers of the 16th and 17th century Islam. The tremendous growth of the Harem institution reconstructed the careers and roles of women in the dynasty power structure. There were harem women who were the mothers, legal wives, consorts, Kalfas, and concubines of the Ottoman Sultan. Only a handful of these harem women were freed from slavery and married their spouses. These women were : Hurrem Sulan, Nurbanu Sulan, Saifye Sultan, Kosem Sulan, Gulnus Sul, Perestu Sultan, and Bezmiara Kadin. The Queen mothers who held the title Valide Sultan had only five of them that were freed slaves after they were concubines to the Sultan.

The concubines were guarded by enslaved eunuchs, themselves often from pagan Africa. The eunuchs were headed by the Kizlar Agha ("agha of the [slave] girls"). While Islamic law forbade the emasculation of a man, Ethiopian Christians had no such compunctions thus, they enslaved and emasculated members of territories to the south and sold the resulting eunuchs to the Ottoman Porte. [52] [53] The Coptic Orthodox Church participated extensively in the slave trade of eunuchs. Coptic priests sliced the penis and testicles off boys around the age of eight in a castration operation. [54]

The eunuch boys were then sold in the Ottoman Empire. The majority of Ottoman eunuchs endured castration at the hands of the Copts at Abou Gerbe monastery on Mount Ghebel Eter. [54] Slave boys were captured from the African Great Lakes region and other areas in Sudan like Darfur and Kordofan then sold to customers in Egypt. [55] [52] During the operation, the Coptic clergyman chained the boys to tables and after slicing their sexual organs off, stuck bamboo catheters into the genital area, then submerged them in sand up to their necks. The recovery rate was 10 percent. The resulting eunuchs fetched large profits in contrast to eunuchs from other areas. [56] [57] [58]

Female sexual slavery was extremely common in the Ottoman empire and any child of a female slave was just as legitimate as any child born of a free woman. [59] This means that any child of a female slave could not be sold or given away. However, due to extreme poverty, some Circassian slaves and free people in the lower classes of Ottoman society felt forced to sell their children into slavery this provided a potential benefit for the children as well, as slavery also held the opportunity for social mobility. [60] If a harem slave became pregnant, it also became illegal for her to be further sold in slavery, and she would gain her freedom upon her current owner's death. [60] Slavery in and of itself was long tied with the economic and expansionist activities of the Ottoman empire. [61] There was a major decrease in slave acquisition by the late eighteenth century as a result of the lessoning of expansionist activities. [61] War efforts were a great source of slave procurement, so the Ottoman empire had to find other methods of obtaining slaves because they were a major source of income within the empire. [61] The Caucasian War caused a major influx of Circassian slaves into the Ottoman market and a person of modest wealth could purchase a slave with a few pieces of gold. [61] At a time, Circassian slaves became the most abundant in the imperial harem. [61]

Circassians, Syrians, and Nubians were the three primary races of females who were sold as sex slaves (Cariye) in the Ottoman Empire. [62] Circassian girls were described as fair and light-skinned and were frequently enslaved by Crimean Tatars then sold to Ottoman Empire to live and serve in a Harem. [62] They were the most expensive, reaching up to 500 pounds sterling, and the most popular with the Turks. Second in popularity were Syrian girls, which came largely from coastal regions in Anatolia. [62] Their price could reach up to 30 pounds sterling. Nubian girls were the cheapest and least popular, fetching up to 20 pounds sterling. [63] Sex roles and symbolism in Ottoman society functioned as a normal action of power. The palace Harem excluded enslaved women from the rest of society. [64]

Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, sexual slavery was not only central to Ottoman practice but a critical component of imperial governance and elite social reproduction. [65] Boys could also become sexual slaves, though usually they worked in places like bathhouses (hammam) and coffeehouses. During this period, historians have documented men indulging in sexual behavior with other men and getting caught. [66] Moreover, the visual illustrations during this period of exposing a sodomite being stigmatized by a group of people with Turkish wind instruments shows the disconnect between sexuality and tradition. However those that were accepted became tellaks (masseurs), köçeks (cross-dressing dancers) or sāqīs (wine pourers) for as long as they were young and beardless. [67] The "Beloveds" were often loved by former Beloveds that were educated and considered upper class. [66]

Some female slaves who were owned by women were sold as sex workers for short periods of time. [59] Women also purchased slaves, but usually not for sexual purposes, and most likely searched for slaves who were loyal, healthy, and had good domestic skills. [68] However, there were accounts of Jewish women owning slaves and indulging in forbidden sexual relationships in Cairo. [68] Beauty was also a valued trait when looking to buy a slave because they often seen as objects to show off to people. [68] While prostitution was against the law, there were very little recorded instances of punishment that came to shari'a courts for pimps, prostitutes, or for the people who sought out their services. [69] Cases that did punish prostitution usually resulted in the expulsion of the prostitute or pimp from the area they were in. [69] However, this does not mean that these people were always receiving light punishments. Sometimes military officials took it upon themselves to enforce extra judicial punishment. This involved pimps being strung up on trees, destruction of brothels, and harassing prostitutes. [69]

Sexual slavery in the Ottoman empire also provided a social function because some slaves gained the status of their owner, or was passed on a distinguished person's lineage. [68] Slaves also had the right to inheritance. Some slaves were treated as family members, and were left with money, items, or were even granted their own freedom. [68] Sexual slavery was a means for social mobility in the Ottoman empire. The imperial harem was similar to a training institution for concubines, and served as a way to get closer to the Ottoman elite. [64] Parents from lower-class concubines especially had better opportunities for social mobility in the imperial harem because they could be trained for marriage to high-ranking military officials. [64] Some of the concubines had a chance for even greater power in Ottoman society if they became favorites of the sultan. [70] The sultan would keep a large number of girls as his concubines in the New Palace, which as a result became known as "the palace of the girls" in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. [70] These concubines mainly consisted of young Christian slave girls. Accounts claim that the sultan would keep a concubine in the New Palace for a period of two months, during which time he would do with her as he pleased. [70] They would be considered eligible for the sultan's sexual attention until they became pregnant if a concubine became pregnant, the sultan may take her as a wife and move her to the Old Palace where they would prepare for the royal child if she did not become pregnant by the end of the two months, she would be married off to one of the sultan's high-ranking military men. [70] If a concubine became pregnant and gave birth to a daughter, she may still be considered for further sexual attention from the sultan. [70] The harem system was an important part of Ottoman-Egyptian society as well it attempted to mimic the imperial harem in many ways, including the secrecy of the harem section of the household, where the women were kept hidden away from males that were outside of their own family, the guarding of the women by black eunuchs, and also having the function of training for becoming wives or concubines. [60]

Responding to the influence and pressure of European countries in the 19th century, the Empire began taking steps to curtail the slave trade, which had been legally valid under Ottoman law since the beginning of the empire. One of the important campaigns against Ottoman slavery and slave trade was conducted in the Caucasus by the Russian authorities. [71]

A series of decrees were promulgated that initially limited the slavery of white persons, and subsequently that of all races and religions. In 1830, a firman of Sultan Mahmud II gave freedom to white slaves. This category included Circassians, who had the custom of selling their own children, enslaved Greeks who had revolted against the Empire in 1821, and some others. [72] Attempting to suppress the practice, another firman abolishing the trade of Georgians and Circassians was issued in October, 1854. [73]

Later, slave trafficking was prohibited in practice by enforcing specific conditions of slavery in sharia, Islamic law, even though sharia permitted slavery in principle. For example, under one provision, a person who was captured could not be kept a slave if they had already been Muslim prior to their capture. Moreover, they could not be captured legitimately without a formal declaration of war, and only the Sultan could make such a declaration. As late Ottoman Sultans wished to halt slavery, they did not authorize raids for the purpose of capturing slaves, and thereby made it effectively illegal to procure new slaves, although those already in slavery remained slaves. [74] [75]

The Ottoman Empire and 16 other countries signed the 1890 Brussels Conference Act for the suppression of the slave trade. Clandestine slavery persisted into the early 20th century. A circular by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in October 1895 warned local authorities that some steamships stripped Zanj sailors of their "certificates of liberation" and threw them into slavery. Another circular of the same year reveals that some newly freed Zanj slaves were arrested based on unfounded accusations, imprisoned and forced back to their lords. [72]

An instruction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to the Vali of Bassora of 1897 ordered that the children of liberated slaves be issued separate certificates of liberation to avoid both being enslaved themselves and separated from their parents. George Young, Second Secretary of the British Embassy in Constantinople, wrote in his Corpus of Ottoman Law, published in 1905, that at time of writing the slave trade in the Empire was practiced only as contraband. [72] The trade continued until World War I. Henry Morgenthau, Sr., who served as the U.S. Ambassador in Constantinople from 1913 until 1916, reported in his Ambassador Morgenthau's Story that there were gangs that traded white slaves during those years. [76] He also wrote that Armenian girls were sold as slaves during the Armenian genocide of 1915. [77] [78]

The Young Turks adopted an anti-slavery stance in the early 20th century. [79] Sultan Abdul Hamid II's personal slaves were freed in 1909 but members of his dynasty were allowed to keep their slaves. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk ended legal slavery in the Turkish Republic. Turkey waited until 1933 to ratify the 1926 League of Nations convention on the suppression of slavery. Illegal sales of girls were reported in the early 1930s. Legislation explicitly prohibiting slavery was adopted in 1964. [80]


3A.7E: Exercises

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Answer Key American JETSTREAM Intermediate Workbook

Introduction 1 Although everyone has a mixture of learning styles, most of us usually have one preferred method of learning.

Mostly a: You are a visual learner. You need to see things to learn well. You enjoy learning through reading and using pictures. You often visualize images in your head to help you remember things. You like to use color coding for your notes. You may want to try drawing diagrams to help you remember and review new information.

Mostly b: You are an auditory learner. You need to hear things to learn well. You learn by listening. Spoken instructions are easier for you to understand than written ones. You often learn by reading out loud. You enjoy small group discussions and can learn best when talking with a partner. You may want to try recording important points or summaries and listening to the recording.

Mostly c: You are a kinaesthetic, or tactile, learner. You learn best by doing things. You enjoy activities that include physical movement. You prefer to touch, move, build, or draw what you learn. You can easily remember things that you have done, but may have difficulty remembering what you saw or heard in the process. You may want to try doing hands-on activities like art projects or drama.

Transcript 02 ALLAN Hi, Lucy. Are you going to the cafeteria? Can I come with you? LUCY Oh hi, Allan. Sure! Come on . You know, I really loved the project we did in class today! It was so cool the way we had to create that puzzle by, you know, working in teams and putting all the pieces together. Didn’t you think that was great? ALLAN Yes, I did. I enjoyed working together and talking about all the different options. Hey, look, there’s Antonio – it looks like he’s on his way to the cafeteria, too. Should we ask him? LUCY Yeah, sure. ALLAN Hey, Antonio, want to go get something to eat with us? ANTONIO Yes, I’d love to. Thanks. ALLAN We’re talking about the project in class today. How did you like it? ANTONIO It was OK, but I prefer to do things on my own, like reading articles online or from magazines. LUCY Really? I think that’s so boring! By the way, are you guys studying for the final exam already? ANTONIO I’ve gone over my notes and highlighted all the important words and the important grammar rules. That’s about it so far.

Opinion of today’s project

Strategy for exam preparation

Loved it – she enjoyed putting the pieces together Enjoyed it – liked working in a team and discussing options Thought it was OK – prefers reading articles online

Rewrite notes using diagrams and charts Wants to work together and test each other

kinaesthetic / tactile auditory

Go through notes highlighting visual important words and grammar rules

I’ve started rewriting my notes using diagrams and charts – that helps me to remember them. I just kind of visualize them in my head when I’m taking the exam. ALLAN You’re lucky. My brain doesn’t work that way. Hey, would you two like to study together one day this week? We could ask each other questions and quiz each other. LUCY Sure – I’m free on Tuesday night. How about you? ALLAN Yeah. That’s good for me, too. Want to meet in the library at about six? ANTONIO Sounds good. Now let’s get some food and find a place to sit down! I’m starving! LUCY

Unit 1 Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar 1 1 wetsuit 2 board 3 life jacket 5 flippers 6 snorkel 7 goggles Mystery water sport: sailing

2 1 kitesurfing (ocean, waves, jump, landing, harness, ropes, kite, wind) 2 windsurfing (balance, board, sail, swing, wind, speeds) 3 scuba diving (ocean, swimming, tropical fish, coral reefs, go down, breathing equipment, safety training) Transcript 03 1 It’s really amazing to be out in the ocean, surrounded by blue waves, sparkling in the sunshine. At the right speed, you can jump over 30 feet (or ten meters)! You have to learn how to do a smooth landing, too. If you take off wrong, you’ll land with a splash! You have to wear a special harness with ropes attached to the kite, and you have to hold onto the ropes with both hands to catch the wind – but when you do, it’s totally amazing! 2 It’s like skateboarding, but on water! It takes a lot of practice – you need a good sense of balance, for one thing. You have to balance yourself on the board and hold onto the sail with both hands, and at the same time, swing around to catch the wind . but once you get going, you can 2

get speeds of up to 30 miles (or almost 50 kilometers) per hour. 3 I love being in the ocean and swimming with all the tropical fish – the colors are incredible. My favorite place is the coral reefs in Hawaii. I’ve been there three times. I generally go down to between 25 or 30 feet (or about eight to ten meters), but you should make sure you have the right breathing equipment and safety training before you try it. 3 1 can jump 2 have to balance 3 should make sure 4

yes / no present perfect yes / no past simple wh- present perfect wh- past simple

5 1 [How many] countries has Alex walked through? 2 [When] did he start his journey? 3 [How much] (money) has he raised for charity (so far)? 4 [How long] did his last trip take? 5 [How many] times has Kate sailed across the Atlantic? 6 [When] did she start sailing? 7 [How many] world records has she broken? 8 [How much] (money) did she raise for charity last year? 6

Suggested answers 1 did you do 2 far did you / your team swim 3 Did you train / Did you have to train 4 Have you ever swum / taken part 5 Did you enjoy/like it / Was it fun

7 1 [She swam in a river] in order to get used to cold water. 2 [She swam every day] in order to build up her strength. 3 [She wore goggles] in order to protect her eyes. 4 [She swam in a metal cage] in order to protect herself from sharks. 5 [She wore a wetsuit] in order not to get hypothermia. 6 [She wore a head camera] in order to record her journey.

8 Suggested answers 2 I’d need a flashlight in order to see (in the dark / at night). 3 I’d need a webcam in order to record my journey / video my trip. 4 I’d need sunscreen in order not to get sunburned. 5 I’d need a life jacket in order not to drown. 6 I’d need a fishing rod in order to catch fish/ food. 7 I’d need (a) GPS (device) in order not to get lost. 8 I’d need a radio in order to contact (other) people / stay in contact. 9 1 not followed 4 with

11 1 has to 2 shouldn’t 3 don’t have to 4 should 5 should 6 don’t have to

2 1 swarm 2 inspired 4 stamina 5 overall

5a 3 determination 6 stinging

3 1 isn’t 2 has 3 protected 4 doesn’t have 5 doesn’t always push 6 is going to swim 4 1 How old is Katie? 2 Who inspired her to become/be a swimmer? 3 What was her most dangerous experience? 4 What were the most difficult things to deal with? 5 Where are you going to swim next?

Vocabulary PLUS, Language in Action 1 1 a drink 5 a swim 2

5 Could you help me pick up these papers / pick these papers up? (request)

4 Palm Leaf Luxury Spa Resort Day Guest option Daily fee

Facials, body massage, mud baths, seasonal body treatments

10 1 have to 2 can’t 3 should / must 4 shouldn’t 5 would / can 6 should 7 don’t have to 8 would / can

Could I sit down here, please? (permission) You could try drinking some water. (advice) They could be on vacation today. (deduction) We could go to the movies tonight. (future possibility)

Facilities available Spa, pool, sauna, sun deck Transcript 04 A Excuse me, I wonder if you could give me some information about the spa treatment packages. B Yes, of course. What would you like to know? A Could you tell me what options there are? B Well, you can enjoy our spa facilities as a day guest. Or you can stay at the resort for one of our spa packages. A I see. Would you mind telling me more about the day guest option? B Sure. You can visit the resort as a day guest as long as you purchase one 60-minute spa treatment and pay the Day Spa fee of 40 dollars. A Could you tell me how much the treatments are? B It depends on the treatment. We have a range of choices, including facials, body massage, mud baths, and seasonal body treatments. They range from 60 to 100 dollars. A And what is the Day Soaker option? B That means you can use the spa facilities, swim in the pool, and use the sauna. For that, the daily charge is 95 dollars for the whole day. A Can I use the sun deck, too? B Absolutely! A That’s great. Thanks! Answer key

5 1 give me some information 2 what options there are 3 telling me 4 tell me how much 5 what is the

6 Suggested answers 1 [Would you mind] telling me if there is a restaurant? 2 [Could you tell me] if it’s possible to have a reflexology session? 3 [I wonder if] I could book a treatment now.

Unit 2 Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar 1 1 the news 2 documentary 3 cartoon 4 quiz show 5 weather forecast 6 sports program 2 1e

3 1 cooking show 2 period drama 3 nature program 4 travel pshow 5 hospital drama 6 quiz show 4 1 science-fiction show 2 crime drama 3 the news Transcript 05 1 MAN

I’ve been watching this amazing new science-fiction series on TV. It’s totally addictive! Really? What’s it about? It’s about a family who lives on Mars, and they have robots who do all the housework for them. And that’s . exciting? Yeah – it’s just like a reality show . but in the future!

What’s on tonight? Anything good? Yeah, there’s one of those crime shows that takes place in Sweden or some place like that. I really want to watch it. Oh, yeah . I used to watch those shows. They’re usually really good. This one has 12 episodes and tonight is Episode 10. Oh, no – I prefer watching them right from the beginning. They’re hard to follow otherwise.

How often do you watch the news? Oh, not very often. Sometimes I watch it before I go to bed, but it’s so depressing. How about you? I used to watch CNN a lot, but I don’t watch the news on TV that much any more. I just get my news online now. Is that better? For me, it is. It’s just easier.

5 1 True 2 False (Like a reality show) 3 True 4 False (Tonight is Episode 10 of 12.) 5 True 6 True 6 1 after before

7 [never], hardly ever, sometimes, often, almost always, [always] 8 always, often 9

Do you often watch sports programs? What time do you usually watch the news? We hardly ever watch movies on TV. They don’t normally like documentaries. / They normally don’t like documentaries. / Normally, they don’t like documentaries. 5 Reality shows aren’t usually very good. / Usually, reality shows aren’t very good. 6 He almost always switches on the weather forecast at 6 a.m.

10 1 dark 2 relaxed 3 lonely 4 empty 5 foggy 6 glamorous 7 popular 8 shocking 11 1 bright 2 crowded 3 stressed 4 unpopular 5 glamorous 6 interesting 7 wonderful 8 hard 12 1 often don’t do anymore 2 never usually do 13 1 use 6 use

14 1 Did [you] use to 2 used to 4 used to 5 did [you] use to 7 didn’t use to 8 used to 15 1 have

16 1 I’ve been waiting here for two hours. 2 You’ve been studying for four hours / since 9 a.m. 3 They’ve been trying to fix this computer (that they bought) since yesterday. 4 Sam has been playing that video game for seven hours / since 10 a.m. 5 Jessica has been listening to this music for three hours.

5 Suggested answers Soaps: rich and glamorous people, unreal, melodrama Reality shows: real people, filmed in real time, not usually scripted Both: fantasy world, suspend reality, addictive

Vocabulary PLUS, Language in Action 1

17 1 has been running 2 has [often] included 3 has won 4 has [also] featured 5 has changed 6 have done 7 have been trying 8 have succeeded 18 1 A [How long] has General Hospital been running (on TV)? B Since 1963. / For over 50 years. 2 A [What kind of topics] does it include / has it included? B Life and death, difficult family dynamics, and dramatic love stories. 3 A [Why] has it been [successful]? B Because it has changed to reflect today’s multicultural society. 4 A [How] have [the writers] been trying reflect today’s [social issues]? B They’ve been trying to modernize the storylines and update the characters.

1 Suggested answer The author doesn’t express a preference. 2 1b

3 1 high profile 2 blur 4 break 5 audiences

4 Suggested answers 1 . they provided a break from the housework. 2 . they were about rich and glamorous people. 3 . they can imagine themselves in the shows. 4 . they’re about real people. 5 . they are scripted.

unexpected unhappy unkind unpleasant unpopular untidy unusual

impatient imperfect impersonal impolite impossible improbable

2 1 unexpected 2 impossible 3 unhappy 4 unusual 5 impolite 6 impersonal 3 Suggested answers The sea smells salty. The ice cream tastes delicious. The weather seems nice / sunny. The people look happy. The atmosphere feels relaxed. The dog sounds noisy. 4 1 used to be 2 used to have / didn’t use to have 3 get used to working 4 ’m not used to going / ’m used to not going 5

Transcript 06 1 Nothing much

6 Suggested answers 1 Please stop banging your car on the TV! 2 Would you mind not having your TV on so loud at night? 3 Could you please not play music while I’m watching (TV)? 4 Please don’t text while we’re eating.

supernatural France period Spain crime the UK romantic the Republic of Korea political US Answer key

Transcript 07 would: book, could, foot, hood, look, should food: cool, fruit, mood, soup

Check your progress 1 1 have changed / have been changing 2 used to watch / would watch 3 to watch 4 used to record / would record 5 didn’t use to have / didn’t have 6 don’t have to follow 7 have started 8 have been watching / can watch 9 should try 10 have to produce 2 1 weather

3 1 diving 2 suit 3 apparatus 5 walking 6 surfing

Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar 1 1 guitar 2 flute 3 piano 4 trombone 5 violin 6 cello 7 saxophone 8 bagpipes 9 drums 10 trumpet

Sally wasn’t able to finish the marathon. Tom didn’t manage to pass the test. We managed to eat all the cake. Were you able to ride a bike when you were five? 5 I couldn’t find my key. 6 Was he able to catch the train this morning?

went had bought was had practiced / practiced were passing saw didn’t play / hadn’t played came was watching asked hadn’t heard watched

5 1 pulling my leg 2 cost an arm and a leg 3 lose face 4 lend (them) a hand 5 lifts a finger 6 a shoulder to cry on 7 Keep your chin up 8 keeping my fingers crossed

11 1 must 2 can’t 3 can’t 5 might 6 can’t

12 1 The music can’t have been very good. 2 They must have enjoyed the performance very much. 3 They could/might/must have stayed up late last night. 4 They can’t have sold all the tickets. 5 They must have played very quietly. 6 They could / might have gone home very early. 7 The audience must have been very tired. 8 She can’t have practiced enough. 13 1 jazz 4 pop

2 country 3 rock 5 pop 6 jazz

Transcript 08 1 MAN WOMAN

What kind of music do you like, Holly? I’m not crazy about classical, but I really like jazz. How about you? I actually really like country music. The one type of music I can’t stand is heavy metal music. Really? My brother’s in a heavy metal band. And they’re pretty good.

9 1 garbage dump 2 landfill site 3 trash cans 4 recycling 5 can 6 recycling bin

4 1 not realize 2 on nothing 3 mind would 4 Could ahead 5 help wonder

2 1 was able to managed to

6 1 had past 2 was or were present 3 past perfect 4 past continuous

Are you not really into folk music, Taylor? Not really. I’m more into classic rock.

Oh, I don’t really like classic rock. But I do like some pop. Oh, yeah? Who’s your favorite singer?

6 1 was able to 2 were playing 3 hadn’t played 4 hadn’t seen were playing 5 managed to

Listen to this – I’m crazy about this new album! What kind of music is this? It’s pop, isn’t it? I don’t really like pop music. No? Do you prefer classical then? No! But I am really into jazz right now.

14 Do you prefer 8 I can’t stand 4 I don’t really like 7 I really like 2 I’m crazy about 6 I’m not crazy about 1 I’m more into 5 I actually like 3 I’m really into 9

Reading 1 Suggested answer The use of technology in producing music. 2 The use of technology in producing music 3 1 currently 2 mission 3 selection 4 comprises 5 compose 6 performance 7 ancient 8 fuses 4 1 The MoPhO 2 The Magic Piano app 3 The SLOrk 4 The Ocarina app 5 Ge Wang 5 Suggested answers 1 He wants to change the way we communicate with each other through music and to connect people around the world through music. 2 He turns laptops and cell phones into musical instruments using apps. 3 It uses laptops and cell phones instead of traditional instruments to create music. 4 It is played by touching the screen of a smartphone and tells you which notes to play. 5 It is played by blowing into the microphone of a smartphone you can use your cell phone to alter the sounds you can play with other people around the world. 6 People can share their music more easily.

Vocabulary PLUS, Language in Action 1

He’s / She’s doing the dusting. She’s / He’s doing the ironing. She’s / He’s making a cake. She’s making the bed.

2 Transcript 09 make a cup of coffee do the dishes do the vacuuming make breakfast 3 1 compose 5 industry

4 1 make it out 2 made off with 4 make it up to you 5 1 made off 2 make do 4 make it out 6 1f

Transcript 10 1 I really enjoyed your performance. 2 I’m glad you enjoyed it. 3 I especially liked the last song. It was just incredible. 4 It’s nice of you to say that. 5 I just think you’re amazing. 6 Thank you. You’ve made my day! 7 a 4

That speech was so impressive! Thanks! I appreciate that.

Wow! You rock! Your guitar solo was so amazing. D Yeah, it was OK . C

Great game! Your serve was incredible! F You think so? My sets could have been better, though.

You were terrific! That’s probably the best ballet performance I’ve ever seen. H Thank you. That’s nice of you.

Thanks! I appreciate that. Yeah, it was OK. You think so? Thank you. That’s nice of you.

10 1 the most famous painting 2 the most expensive jewelry 3 the most popular art museum 4 the oldest drawings 5 the largest sculpture 6 the most beautiful building 11 1 gorgeous 4 ridiculous

2 1 – 2 a 3 The 6 the 7 some 3 1d

4 1 photographer 2 ballerina 3 designer 4 playwright 5 choreographer 6 conductor 7 director 5 1 Michelangelo’s statue of David is significantly older than the Angel of the North. 2 The paintings of Da Vinci are much more famous than the work of Manet. 3 Frida Kahlo is far more popular today than Diego Rivera. 4 Monet was slightly more successful than Gauguin in his lifetime. 5 Van Gogh’s paintings are almost as expensive as the work of Picasso. 6 Henry Moore’s sculptures are much more well known / much better known than those of Louise Bourgeois. 7 Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa is a lot smaller than most people realize. 8 Rudolf Nureyev was much younger than Margot Fonteyn. 6 1 noisy 2 intelligent 3 funny 4 generous 5 old 6 rich 7 cheerful 8 tall 7 large 8 1b

Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar b the

What do you think of this painting? It’s absolutely gorgeous! I mean, just look at the colors – they’re incredible. Mmm, I’m not sure I agree. I think those yellow and blue faces are really scary-looking, and in a way, well, pretty horrible.

How did you like the art exhibition? Hmm, it was enjoyable . but I don’t think it was very deep, if you know what I mean. What about you? Yeah. It didn’t do anything for me, either. In fact, I thought it was pretty ridiculous.

These portraits are amazing, aren’t they? There are so many exciting and interesting ideas going on. They really open up a new way of looking at art. Definitely. I thought this exhibition was going to be terrible, but I’m really impressed. I think the portraits are pretty powerful, actually. I agree!

12 Adjectives Conversation 1 Conversation 2 Conversation 3

gorgeous, incredible, scarylooking, horrible enjoyable, deep, ridiculous amazing, exciting, interesting, terrible, powerful

Reading 3 1 the cosmos 4 skyrocketed 7 harmony 4 1b

2 luminous 3 tiny 5 installation 6 auction

Vocabulary PLUS, Language in Action 1 1 composition 2 focus 5 exposure 6 screen

Suggested answers 1 It’s on the right, behind the benches. 2 It’s on the right, in the fountain. 3 They’re in the background, on the left and in the center. 4 They’re in the foreground, in front of the fountain. 5 They’re in the background, behind the trees. 6 It’s in the foreground, in front of the benches.

3 1 writers 2 novels/stories 4 deepened 5 little 4 1 sketch out / draw up 2 draw your attention to 4 paint the town red 5 1d

5 Suggested answers 1 It makes them feel in touch with infinity, the cosmos. 2 It’s repetitive. 3 To experience a feeling of infinity. 4 Dots are a symbol of energy, like the sun or moon. 5 Energetic, playful, powerful, abstract

Jewel tones? What’s that? Anyway, I thought they were just too bright. But let’s agree to disagree on colors!

These outfits are totally amazing. I’ve never seen anything like them before. Yeah, they’re pretty unusual, aren’t they? And the colors are incredible – I love them. They’re jewel tones, right?

What do you think of these dresses? I don’t like them very much. They don’t look very fashionable to me at all. Really? I think they’re fashionable, but not very practical, though. Come on! You have to agree, some of them are really ugly!

3 WOMAN 3 MAN 2 WOMAN 3 MAN 2

I love this jacket – it’s such a pretty color. Yes, it’s pretty gorgeous. I’d love to buy it to wear with my new outfit. Would you? Hmm . yes, I can see what you mean .

7 1 The first speaker loves the colors the second speaker thinks they are too bright. 2 The first speaker thinks they’re fashionable, but not practical the second speaker thinks they’re not stylish and really ugly. 3 The first speaker thinks it’s a pretty color the second speaker thinks it’s pretty gorgeous.

Review 3–4 1 1c 2a 3b 4c 5a 6a 2 1 c Georgia O’Keeffe (the US) 2 a Henri Matisse (France) 3 b Ludwig van Beethoven (Germany) 4 d Gloria Estefan (Cuba / the US)

Pronunciation point Transcript 14 dramatic, energetic, enthusiastic, imaginative, incredible, orchestra, pathetic, ridiculous, unusual

Check your progress 2 1 1 had bought 2 were sitting 3 weren’t able to hear 4 managed to find 5 weren’t able 2 1 one

3 1 pulling 2 crossed 3 dump 4 bins 5 composer 6 director/producer 7 generous 8 noisy 9 profound 10 moving

8 1 noisy environment 2 unfriendly boss 3 long working hours 4 tight deadlines 5 low salary 6 difficult colleagues Transcript 15

Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar

1 1 frustrating 2 confused 3 relaxing 4 challenging 5 boring 6 interesting 7 tired 8 excited 9 exhausting

2 1 head 2 neck shoulders 3 mouth throat 4 hands 5 heart 6 stomach

3 1 the present tense 2 will + verb 3 a comma 4 no comma 5 likely 4 1 If Sam gets up early, he’ll catch the bus. 2 If you don’t drink enough water, you’ll feel tired. 3 If we don’t exercise, we won’t lose any weight. 4 You won’t sleep well if you drink too much coffee. 5 Kirsty won’t feel stressed if she gets enough sleep this weekend. 6 If I don’t get a vacation soon, I’ll feel really depressed. 6 1 unless you start 2 unless he works 3 unless we stop 4 unless she goes 5 Unless we won’t finish 6 Unless you’ll have 7 1 Unless I work on the weekends, I won’t get promoted. / I won’t get promoted unless I work on the weekends. 2 Unless he has a car, he won’t get the job. / He won’t get the job unless he has a car. 3 Unless Janet gets a raise, she won’t stay in her job. / Janet won’t stay in her job unless she gets a raise. 4 Unless we finish this report on time, we won’t get the contract. / We won’t get the contract unless we finish this report on time. 5 Unless they fix my computer, I won’t be able to finish my work. / I won’t be able to finish my work unless they fix my computer. 10

How’s your new job? Oh, not too bad. I’m getting used to it. My desk is right next to the break room, though . Oh, that’s terrible. Have you asked your manager if you can change your location? Not yet . he’s not been very welcoming so far. It’s going to take a while .

How’s it going at work these days? It’s been awful – I’ve been working every weekend to try and keep up with the workload. I’m so exhausted! Can’t you get help from your colleagues? No, everyone’s got the same problem. And if we don’t get everything finished by the end of the month, we’ll be in trouble.

Hi, Darren! Haven’t seen you for a while. How’s everything? OK. I’ve just started a new job. The salary isn’t great, but the people are nice. Oh, really? That’s the opposite of me – my pay is pretty good, but the people I work with . we just don’t seem to get along. Yeah . that’s bad when that happens. Sorry.

9 1 coordinator 2 librarian 3 manager 4 pilot 5 teacher 6 doctor 7 police officer 8 hairdresser 9 journalist 10 1 boss 2 feedback 3 deadlines 4 environment 5 unfriendly 6 low 7 working hours

OK. I have some chamomile tea. Should I try that? A Yes, that’s perfect. And why don’t you practice your interview beforehand? I could help you with that. B Could you? That would be great!

2 1 normal/common 2 totally 3 goes up 4 throw up 5 splitting 6 harm 7 anxious 3 12

Vocabulary PLUS, Language in Action 1 Blood, brain, heart, lung, mouth, muscle, throat, stomach, neck, shoulder 2

Suggested answers 1 marketing/office/sales manager 2 yoga/Pilates/driving instructor 3 heart/brain/plastic/dental surgeon 4 truck/taxi/bus driver

4 1 overcharges 4 overcooked

3 thoughtful 6 successful

3 overcrowded 6 overjoyed

5 1 getting on / get on 2 get to 3 got back 4 get rid of 5 get up 6 get together 6 1c

7 Problem: feeling stressed about a job interview Advice: 1 relax more 2 do breathing exercises 3 drink herbal tea 4 practice the interview with a friend Transcript 16 A What’s the matter, Claudia? Are you OK? B No, I’m feeling really tired. I didn’t sleep very well last night. A Oh no! Why? Are you worried about something? B Yes, I’ve got a job interview next week, and I’m really stressed about it. A You should really try to relax before bed! If you’re tired and stressed in the interview, it won’t help you. B I know. I know. But what should I do? A Try doing some breathing exercises before you go to bed. Practice breathing in and out slowly for at least ten minutes. B Really? OK. I can try that.. A And I suggest drinking some herbal tea as well. That might help.

8 1 You should try to relax more! 2 If you’re stressed in the interview, it won’t help. 3 Try doing some breathing exercises before bedtime. 4 I suggest drinking some herbal tea as well. 6 Why don’t you practice your interview beforehand?

Unit 6 Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar 1 1 the past tense 2 would + verb 3 a comma 4 no comma 5 unlikely 2 1e

3 1 would grow had 2 had would buy 3 would learn lived 4 could travel would go 5 didn’t (have to) go would spend 6 would work wasn’t 4 1 tides 2 wobble 3 climate 4 disaster 5 survive 6 plants 7 photosynthesis 8 animals 9 die 10 submarines 11 energy 12 orbit 5 1c

6 1 can 2 can’t to 5 couldn’t 8 could 7

4d 3 has to 4 weren’t allowed 6 had to 7 had to

We had to drink water every day. They weren’t allowed to eat sweets. The baby had to have a nap after lunch. You didn’t have to make your own lunch. She couldn’t eat any chips or chocolate. Did you have to eat a lot of vegetables? We could go home for lunch every day. Were you allowed to eat breakfast in front of the TV? 9 Could you have soda and juice, or were you only allowed water?

8 1 We didn’t have to learn how to cook when I was in college. 2 They weren’t allowed to play soccer in the winter. 3 I had to wear uniform at my school. 4 She was not / wasn’t allowed to drink coffee until she was 16. 5 I couldn’t to eat strawberries when I was little. 6 Did you have to take a packed lunch to school every day? 10 1 garlic 2 ginger 3 artichoke 5 coconut 6 pineapple

Does it say anything about chocolate? I heard that chocolate is good for your health, too. It doesn’t mention chocolate exactly, but it does mention cocoa powder, which doesn’t have a lot of calories and still tastes like chocolate! It’s supposed to lower blood pressure and improve blood circulation. OK, that sounds good! I can definitely add that to my diet!

14 1 vitamins 2 minerals 3 protect 4 disease 5 cancer 6 heart 7 pressure 8 blood

11 1 kiwi 2 pineapple 3 coconut 4 artichoke 5 acai 6 brazil nuts 7 vinegar 8 ginger 9 miso 10 turmeric 11 garlic 12 honey

12 1 infections 2 resistant 3 mutations 4 Superbugs 5 resist 6 patients 7 immune systems 8 operation 9 developing 10 effective

2 1 great 2 promotes 3 vendors 4 energize 5 options 6 tasty 7 fully 8 avoid

Transcript 17 What’s that article you’re reading, Rachel? It looks interesting. RACHEL It’s about superfoods. JARED Really? What are superfoods anyway? RACHEL Well, I don’t think there’s an official definition. But generally speaking, they’re foods that contain high levels of vitamins and minerals, and may also have additional health benefits that can, you know, protect our bodies from cell damage and prevent disease. JARED Oh yes, I’ve heard of some . like blueberries, for example? RACHEL That’s right – blueberries have high levels of anti-oxidants, which may help fight cancer and heart disease. There’s another berry called acai, but you can’t buy those fresh You can get them in a powdered form that you can add to drinks and smoothies. JARED

3 No 4 No 5 Yes 8 Maybe 9 Maybe

Vocabulary PLUS, Language in Action 1 Singular

child foot goose half knife man mouse ox person sheep tooth wife woman wolf

children feet geese halves knives men mice oxen people sheep teeth wives women wolves

2 1 put on 2 run out 3 cutting down 4 come down 5 getting rid of 6 going up 3 1 Where on earth are you going / have you been?

2 What on earth are you doing? 3 Where on earth did you get that/it? 4 Who on earth was that (man) / he?

1 toenails 2 headlines 3 armchair 4 background 5 football 6 toothpaste 7 lipstick 8 eyelid Mystery item of jewelry: necklace

Review 5–6 1 1a 2c 3a 4c 5a 6b 2 1 (honey) bee 2 zebra 3 frog 4 pineapple 5 coconut 6 artichoke

Pronunciation Point Transcript 17 She’ll love it. / She will love it. 2 I’ll see him tomorrow. / I will see him tomorrow. 3 They’ll finish at six o’clock. / They will finish at six o’clock. 4 It’ll rain this weekend. / It will rain this weekend. 1

6 Suggested answers 1 It’s a thing for / something for peeling potatoes. 2 It’s a thing for / something for killing/ catching mice. 3 It’s some stuff for sticking things together / fixing things. 7 1c

Transcript 18 It’s a sort of clear, reddish soup that comes from Russia. It’s a little like chicken soup, but it’s made from beets and other vegetables. Sometimes it has dumplings in it, which are a little like a cross between bread and pasta. You can eat it hot or cold, and it’s nice with a spoonful of sour cream. 2 It’s a kind of greenish paste made from avocado mashed up with salt and lemon juice and sometimes a little salsa. The way people eat it is sort of like mustard or ketchup. You eat it with tortillas or beans or just with tortilla chips. It’s very popular in Mexico and many parts of the United States. 3 It’s a kind of sweet, creamy dessert, like custard pie, but much lighter. It’s made with sponge cookies flavored with coffee, then covered in a sort of creamy sauce and sprinkled with chocolate. Its name means “pick me up” in Italian. 1

Check your progress 3 1 1 If you eat garlic, you won’t get colds. 2 I won’t be alert tomorrow unless I get enough sleep. 3 If Tim didn’t have to work, he’d travel all over the world. 4 I wouldn’t eat a snake unless I was very, very hungry. 5 If Sue had more free time, she would exercise more. 2 1 had to 2 was allowed to 3 weren’t allowed to 4 didn’t have to 5 wasn’t allowed to 3 1 relaxed 2 stomach 3 confusing 4 salary 5 colleagues 6 insect 7 mammals 8 climate 9 spice 10 bacteria 4

How about / Why not try See if you can / You could I suggest / Why don’t kind / sort a little / rather

Unit 7 Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar 1 1 simple 2 continuous 3 would like to happen 2 1 people will be living under the ocean. 2 everyone will be going to the moon for vacations. 3 people won’t be working in offices. Answer key

4 robots will be doing all the work. 5 we won’t read books anymore. (we won’t be reading books anymore is also possible, but more colloquial) 6 people will have robotic arms and legs. SHARON

3 1 People are extremely/really positive/ optimistic about finding a cure for cancer. 2 They are very/pretty positive/optimistic about global warming. 3 They are not very positive/optimistic about world peace. 4 They are very/pretty negative/pessimistic about world poverty. 5 They are extremely/really negative/ pessimistic about developing alternative energy. 5 1c

6 1 Julia is going to study law at college next year. 2 We’re flying to Italy next week. 3 I’ll probably go to the movies this weekend. 4 My parents might visit me next week. 5 Sam will probably start looking for a new 6 We’re going to buy a new computer this year. 7 1 until 7 p.m. 2 as long as 3 this time 4 three weeks’ time 5 by lunchtime 6 in ten minutes 8 1 To New York, to start a new job 2 To clear out his apartment Transcript 20 Hey, Sharon, guess what? I got the job . in New York! SHARON That’s amazing, Sam! I’m so happy for you. Is it in Manhattan? SAM Yes! I’m starting in two weeks! I’m so excited! I’m flying there next weekend to look at places to live, so I’m busy clearing out my apartment here. Can you come over and give me a hand? SHARON Of course! I’m meeting friends this evening, so I probably won’t get home until after nine, but how about tomorrow evening? SAM Yes! That’s great! I’m supposed to be out of my apartment by this time SAM

next week, so I’m going to put all my stuff in storage somewhere. But I may need somewhere to stay before I leave for New York. Could I stay at your place for a few days? Of course! You can stay as long as you like. But listen, I have to run now because my class starts in ten minutes. Oh, OK! Thanks a lot, Sharon . and see you tomorrow! Yes, I’ll be there by 6 p.m. at the latest.

In two weeks Next weekend This evening After 9 p.m. Tomorrow evening This time next week A few days As long as he likes In ten minutes By 6 p.m.

10 1 roundabout 2 T-junction 3 fork in the road 4 traffic lights 5 road sign 6 four-lane highway 7 one-way street 8 dead end

Reading 1 Robots, medicine, education, employment, communication, environment 2 1T

3 Suggested answers 1 the length of a person’s life 2 the ability to understand someone else’s feelings 3 change 4 the planet 5 a place that people cannot inhabit or live in 4 1 Medicine, employment, communication 2 Medicine: cures for diseases, drugs to improve memory and brain function Employment: robots will do boring jobs, humans will do creative ones Communication: holograph technology 4 Climate change 5 People won’t change their lifestyles and some parts of the Earth will be uninhabitable

Vocabulary PLUS, Language in Action

1 1 motorway 2 sidewalk 3 main street 4 car park 5 access road 6 gas 7 windscreen 8 lorry 9 toll road 10 trunk

2 1 a cul-de-sac 2 a traffic jam 3 a toll road 4 a on-ramp 5 a one-way street 6 a junction 3

Possible answers 1 They’re walking over a footbridge. 2 They’re walking through a pedestrian mall. 3 They’re stopping at a traffic light. 4 They’re walking across a crosswalk.

Do you know where the library is? How long will it take to get to the station? The best way is to turn right here. Keep going and you can’t miss it.

6 1 bus station 2 convention center 3 art musuem 4 library 5 gas station Transcript 21 1 A B

Excuse me. I’m looking for the bus station. Can you help me? Yes, you need to go straight ahead on Green Street. Turn left at the stoplights. Then take the first right.

Can you help me? I’m trying to find the convention center. Yes, of course. Go straight ahead on Park Street. Then turn left at the next stoplight. It’s on the right. You can’t miss it!

Excuse me. Do you know where the art museum is? Yes. Take the next street on your left – that’s South Street. When you get to Bridge Road, turn right and it’s on the next corner.

Excuse me. I’m looking for the main library. Is it nearby? Hmm, it’s quite a walk from here. Just keep going down this street until you get to the park. Then walk through the park and it’s on the other side.

Excuse me. Where’s the nearest gas station? Turn right at the stop sign onto Green Street. Then take the third left after the stoplight. It’s on the right.

Unit 8 Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar 1

1 director 2 casting director 3 producer 4 gaffer 5 editor 6 scriptwriter 7 foley artist 8 set designer 9 composer 10 costume designer

2 1 intelligent 2 indecisive 3 easy-going 4 grumpy 5 untidy 6 nervous 7 shy 8 lazy 3 1 orders

She asked me to rewrite this scene. He told us to turn off the lights. He asked her to play that scene again. She told him not to make any noise. He asked her not to shout. He told them not to be late again.

Could you rewrite this scene, please? Turn the lights off! Would you play that scene again, please? Don’t make any noise! Please don’t shout. Don’t be late again!

1 use to watch 2 used to love/like 3 would make 4 would close 5 didn’t use to have 6 used to like/love 7 would show 8 would laugh

1 a half / 1/2 2 a quarter / 1/4 3 a third / 1/3 4 four-fifths / 4/5 5 three-quarters / 3/4 6 two-thirds / 2/3 7 an eighth / 1/8 8 three-fifths / 3/5

9 1 51% 2 5% 3 4% 5 46.7% 6 30%

Transcript 22 Everyone used to go to the movie theater or the cineplex to watch movies, but things are changing . nowadays, more people are watching movies and TV shows online. A new survey shows that 51% of people in the United States stream a video at least once a week 5% of people use a tablet to stream TV shows or movies on a weekly basis, while 4% use a smartphone. Age makes a huge difference when you look at the numbers for streaming video. Not surprisingly, people in the age group 13 to 33 are in the majority, with 62% watching at least weekly. People in the age group 34 to 47 are in second place, with 46.7%, and it drops to 30% for people in the age group 48 to 69. 10 1 present 11 1 2 3 4

Makeup artist Special effects coordinator

13 1 Mark said (that) he didn’t have time to meet her/Kyla. Kyla said (that) that was OK, she didn’t want to see him again anyway! 2 Max and Leo said (that) they were going to the movies. Vicky said (that) she couldn’t go on Saturday because she was working. 3 Alexa asked if she could give Jack and Julie / them a ride to the station. Jack and Julie said not to worry, they were taking a taxi. 14 1 toll-booth operator 2 bike courier 3 security guard 4 garbage collector 5 call-center operator 15 1 [tour] guide: guides tourists 2 [flight] attendant: takes care of passengers on a plane 3 [news] presenter: presents the news 4 [sales] assistant: serves customers in a store

artistic, good at communicating and listening ability to work in a team, attention to detail

long hours, low salary initially hard work, exhausting, have to deal with unexpected problems physically and mentally demanding, risky/dangerous

4 1 false 2 initially 3 demanding 4 anticipating 5 coordinate

Vocabulary PLUS, Language in Action 1 1 budget 2 buff 3 silent 4 premiere 5 promotional 6 home 7 download 8 stream 2 1 mood 2 calmly 3 lazy 4 nervously 5 decisive 6 grumpiness 7 knowledgeable 8 ignorance 3 1 bride/groom 2 groom/bride 3 bridesmaid(s) / maid of honor 4 best man / groomsmen 5 guests 6 reception 7 cake 8 speeches 9 honeymoon 4 1 bride 2 groom 3 flower girl 4 maid of honor 5 best man 5 1 d, h 6 a9 f2

be physically fit, rock climbing, scuba diving, snowboarding, martial arts, patience, ability to guide actors/ direct

he wants to meet me tomorrow she doesn’t have time to talk to me they’ll call us tomorrow he’s not coming to see us today

Transcript 23 Good morning, Patty. PATTY Come on in, Leila! LEILA You said you wanted to see me? PATTY Yes. There’s something I want to talk to you about. LEILA Yes, I’m sorry about the report. I promise I’ll have it ready tomorrow morning. PATTY No, don’t worry about that! There’s something I’ve been meaning to tell you. LEILA Oh! You’re not letting me go, are you? PATTY Of course not! It’s just that I’m going to retire this year, and I’m wondering if you’d like to take over. LEILA You want me to take over? You mean . PATTY Yes, Leila, I’d like you to be the new chief financial officer. LEILA

Suggested answers 1 composes music / the soundtrack 2 designs costumes / clothes 3 tells the actors and camera operators what to do 4 creates sound effects 5 finds the best locations for filming

Pronunciation point Transcript 24 1 MAN

She’s just won a million dollars!

They’ve just left for the evening?

The train leaves at five! 3b

Transcript 25 1 MAN WOMAN

She’s just won a million dollars! That’s amazing!

They’ve just left for the evening? Yes, they have.

He’s gone to Australia? Yes, he has.

The train leaves at five! Let’s hurry!

Check your progress 4 1 1 ’ll/will be using 2 in 3 used to watch 4 hope will be 5 won’t be 6 by 7 will be doing 2 1 Jane asked him to write a new script for her / if he could write a new script for her. 2 Alex asked/told us to do that scene again. 3 Martin said they would start filming next week / the following week. 4 Joanna said she wanted to find a job as an actor. 5 Carmen asked me to help her find a job. 3 1 positive/optimistic 2 one-way 3 operator 4 casting 5 nervous 6 untidy 7 quarters 8 third 9 courier 10 security 4 b + a, c + f, d + g, e + h

Unit 9 Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar 1 Suggested answers 1 wool, cotton 2 glass, plastic 3 gold, silver 4 brick, concrete 5 concrete, iron, steel, wood 6 cotton, paper, plastic 3 1 action 2 isn’t needed 3 past participle 4 1 built 2 made 3 visited 4 used 5 found 6 kept 7 destroyed 8 lost Five are irregular (1, 2, 5, 6, and 8).

5 1 is visited 2 are made 3 were kept 4 was destroyed 5 was found 6 were used 7 was lost 8 was built 6 1 attic 2 basement 3 balcony 4 floorboard 5 hall 6 staircase 8 roof 9 radiator 10 wall

1 power station 2 shopping mall 3 police station 4 apartment block 5 gas station 6 fire station 7 train station 8 office block

11 ought to 2 False 7 False

Transcript 26 JOE Hi there, Julie! Are you having some repairs done on your house? I saw the contractor’s van outside. Have you been having problems? JULIE Yes. It’s been a nightmare, actually . our water heater broke down, and we had to get a new one. And we had a new one installed just a couple of years ago! JOE That’s really expensive, isn’t it? JULIE Yes, it is . and then they found a leak under the bathroom tiles, and it looks like the floor’s got dry rot and needs replacing, too. JOE Oh, no! Did it damage the ceiling below? JULIE Fortunately not, but the whole floor needs to be removed now and new floorboards put in, and then some of the pipes need replacing, and all the radiators need cleaning out . so it’s turning out to be quite a big job. 18

That does sound serious! I hope you’ve got a good contractor. This is the second one we’ve tried. The first one said he would charge over three thousand dollars, and we just couldn’t afford it. So we found someone else who’s a little less expensive. Uh, oh. I hope he’s not one of those cowboy contractors .

13 Suggested answers 1 Because he saw a contractor’s van outside her house. 2 Because there were so many problems with the house. 14 1 ask someone else to do

10 1 should be knocked 2 should be protected 3 would be lost 4 should be replaced 5 should be done 6 shouldn’t be demolished 7 could be reused

7 1 pipes 2 blocked 3 cracks 4 watertight 5 dry rot 6 floorboards 7 rotten 8 dangerous 8

have your hair cut get my car serviced have your windows washed get your clothes cleaned have my washing machine fixed get my photos printed

Reading 2 1 32,500-square-meter 3 in 1997 4 millions of 6 twice the size

2 the Nervion River 5 not everyone

3 1 magnet 2 overwhelming 3 blend 4 extraordinary 5 transformed 6 smog 4 Suggested answers 1 It was built in a city that didn’t get many visitors. It has an unusual design. 2 It attracted millions of visitors, which created business and publicity for the city. 3 It doesn’t blend in, it dominates local culture. 4 They want to attract tourists and give their city a high profile.

Vocabulary PLUS, Language in Action

bed chair table Dairy products cheese milk yogurt

belt gloves scarf Office supplies envelope paper pen

bracelet earring necklace Sports facilities ice rink tennis court swimming pool

contractor nurse poet Buildings factory house school

2 1 demolish 2 description 3 redecorating 4 reuse 5 explosion 6 renew 3 1 slow down 2 turn down 3 sit down 4 go/come down 5 write down 6 settle down 7 calm down 4 1 Dear 2 heard 3 peace 4 sea 5 week 6 break 7 sail 8 read 9 sun 10 seen 11 their 12 meet 5 1e

6 1 too short 2 cracked 3 made a funny noise Transcript 27 1

Good afternoon, can I help you? Yes, I’d like to return these jeans. ASSISTANT OK. And what’s the problem with them? CUSTOMER Well, they’re way too short. They’re completely the wrong size. ASSISTANT I see. Do you have the receipt? CUSTOMER Yes, here it is. ASSISTANT Hmm, I’m sorry, but there’s a problem. You see, you bought these jeans on sale, and we have a no return policy on sale items. CUSTOMER But that’s completely unacceptable! The point is that I bought them from here, and I’d like to return them – I mean, they’re brand new! I haven’t worn them at all! ASSISTANT I understand that, sir, but that is our company policy. It’s written right

Good morning. How can I help you? Well, there’s a problem with this bowl. It’s cracked. ASSISTANT Let me see. Ah yes, it is cracked. Could I see your receipt, please? CUSTOMER Oh, no. I’m afraid I didn’t keep it. Can I still get a refund? ASSISTANT Just a moment. Let me ask the manager about that. I don’t think it will be a problem. MANAGER Good morning. You’d like to return this bowl, is that correct? CUSTOMER Yes, that’s right. It’s cracked, as you can see. MANAGER Mmm, well, we don’t usually accept returns without a receipt. But in this case, we could offer a replacement bowl. Would that would be acceptable? CUSTOMER Yes, that would be fine. Thank you. ASSISTANT

Good afternoon. How can I help you? CUSTOMER Well, you see, I bought this coffee maker here about two weeks ago, but when I switched it on, it made a funny noise, and then it didn’t work properly. ASSISTANT I see. Let me take a look. Yes, we’ve still got those in stock. Would you like a replacement? CUSTOMER No, actually, I’d like a refund if possible. ASSISTANT Yes, of course. Do you have your receipt? CUSTOMER Yes, I do. Here it is. ASSISTANT OK. So that’s $34.99 to go back on your credit card then. Could you just swipe your card and sign this receipt, please? You should see the amount appear in the next 48 hours. CUSTOMER Thank you very much. ASSISTANT

8 1 the store has a no-return policy on sale items 2 didn’t have 3 replacement 4 a refund to her credit card

Unit 10 Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar 1 1 past simple 3 a different 2

I wish I was / were taller. He wishes he didn’t have so much work. I wish he didn’t talk so loudly! They wish they didn’t have to get up early. Suzanne wishes she had learned to dance when she was younger. 6 Peter wishes he could save enough money for a new car. 7 I wish we had enough money to go on vacation this year. 8 The teacher wishes / wished the students would do their homework on time. 1 2 3 4 5 6

I wish I had a car. She wishes she was/were more confident. He wishes he had joined the soccer team. I wish you wouldn’t laugh at me! We wish we had time to take a vacation. I wish I had traveled more when I was younger.

4 1 had 2 was/were 5 would

5 1, 7, 2, 4, 3, 6, 5, 8 6 1 spilled coffee 2 got stuck 3 fell out 4 fell off 5 dropped plate 6 ran out 7

hadn’t spilled hadn’t got stuck (in a traffic jam) hadn’t fallen out of bed hadn’t fallen off her bike hadn’t dropped a plate (on the floor) hadn’t run out of ideas

8 1 past perfect would + verb 2 didn’t happen 9 20

hadn’t broken down wouldn’t have missed hadn’t dropped wouldn’t have stopped hadn’t worn would have gotten would have won had practiced would have gone hadn’t been had come would have seen would have passed had studied wouldn’t have fallen hadn’t lost

10 Suggested answers 1 . she wouldn’t have been late for work. 2 . he’d prepared for the interview. 3 . he wouldn’t have failed the exam. 4 . she’d had a map with her. 5 . he could have afforded a new tablet. 11 Rosie 1. What are their jobs now? 2. What did they study at school? 3. What do they wish they had studied? 4. When they were at school, what did they think they would be in the future?

photographer web page designer art carpentry computers

Transcript 28 Rosie, what made you decide to be a photographer? ROSIE I think it was my art teacher who influenced me most. MAX Your art teacher? In high school, you mean? ROSIE Yeah, of course! I’ll always remember my art classes with Mrs. Roberts because she taught me to really look at paintings and think about them with fresh eyes. If she hadn’t taught me how to look at art, I’d never have become a photographer. MAX Wow! That’s great. I never took art in high school … I took wood shop instead. I wish I had, though, because now I really need to know about color and design in my job designing web pages. I’ve had to learn everything from scratch, really, and there’s so much you need to know. ROSIE I know what you mean. I wish I’d taken more technology classes. It would really help me now. But instead I chose fashion design and textiles. I thought I was going to be a fashion designer. MAX

And I thought I’d be a furniture maker! How could we have known?

Reading 1 Gods: Aphrodite, Eros, Persephone Human: king, queen, Psyche and her sisters 2 Suggested answers 1 Because she was so beautiful and people were admiring her instead of Aphrodite. 2 Because he was a god and had wings, so she might have been frightened. 3 Because she lived in a beautiful mansion and had a life of luxury. 4 Because Psyche had disobeyed him. 5 To test her love for Eros. 6 She is determined and loyal. 3

Suggested answers 1 Aphrodite wouldn’t have been jealous. 2 Aphrodite had not sent him to see her. 3 she would have found a husband. 4 she wouldn’t have disobeyed Eros. 5 Psyche hadn’t tried to look at him. 6 Eros hadn’t helped her.

4 1 furious 2 restriction 4 handsome 5 spell

while? That’s a good idea. I’ll rest on the couch. A I’ll get you a glass of water and something to eat. B Thanks, that would be great. A You’ll feel better soon. Conversation 2 A What’s wrong with you now? B I hurt my knee. It’s really painful. A Oh, that’s terrible! What do you need? B Can you get me an ice pack, please? A Of course. It could have been worse, you know. B I know! It was really stupid. A No! Don’t worry. Let’s go out for dinner tonight. You’ll forget all about it! B

2 1 Eiffel Tower (Paris, France) steel 2 Taj Mahal (Agra, India) marble/stone 3 Reichstag Dome (Berlin, Germany) glass, steel 4 the Pyramids (Cairo, Egypt) stone 5 the Houses of Parliament (London, England) brick 6 Horyuji Temple (Horyuji, Japan) wood

Vocabulary PLUS, Language in Action

1 1 queen 2 uncle 5 heroine 6 heir

Transcript 30 2 1 attendant 2 mispronounce 3 assistant 4 chair 5 miscalculated 6 homemaker

3 1 go 2 doing 3 way around 4 What’s 5 setting 6 had 7 idea 8 person

4 1 give [it] back 3 pay [it] back

2 Put [it] back 4 go back 5 stand back 4b

These flowers are for you!

I’ve just moved into a new house. You’ve just spilled coffee on my new shirt!

Let’s meet for coffee tomorrow!

Transcript 29 Conversation 1 A What’s the matter? You look awful. B I cut my finger while I was chopping vegetables. A Oh, no! Why don’t you sit down for a

These flowers are for you! Thank you so much!

I’ve just moved into a new house. Oh, that’s so exciting! Answer key

You’ve just spilled coffee on my new shirt! I’m so sorry.

3 1 multi-player game 2 board game 3 card game 4 zero-sum game 5 ball game 6 game show 7 end game 8 war game 9 game plan

Let’s meet for coffee tomorrow! Great, I’ll be so happy to see you.

Check your progress 5 1 1 was designed 2 were demolished 3 was completed 4 can be seen 5 should not be built 6 will be recognized 2 1’re/are having [the roof] repaired 2 ’d/had done 3 ’d/had fixed [the roof, it] would have saved 4 ’d/would hurry 3 1 brick 2 sand 3 paper 4 gold 5 attic 6 basement 7 staircase 8 dropped 9 got stuck 10 lost 4

5 1 e Children who/that play games when they are young are more successful later in life. 2 b There are many video games which/that have physical as well as mental benefits. 3 f Multi-player games are games where you can meet other online gamers. 4 c Brain Age is a game which/that helps with mental arithmetic, reading speed, and concentration. 5 a That game (which/that) you gave me for my birthday is awesome! 6 d This is the game whose inventor made five million dollars when he was just 17. 7 1 sour 4 hot

2 rotten 3 fresh 5 ripe 6 bitter

Can I help you? Yes, I bought these shoes here last week. What’s wrong with them? They’re too small. Can I return them? Do you have your receipt?

Are you all right? What’s happened? I failed my driving test . again! Oh, that’s terrible. Don’t let it get you down. But it’s the third time! Tell you what, let’s go to a movie and forget all about it!

Vocabulary, Listening, Grammar 1 1 subject

2 1 [Could you tell me] what your name is? 2 [Would you mind telling me] if you play computer games? 3 [Can you tell me] how often you play computer games? 4 [Do you have any idea] what the best computer game is? 5 [Could you tell me] if you like playing chess online? 6 [Do you know] if there are any free chess games online? Answer key


[2.2.4] etcd/controlplane master not registering on new clusters #21514

Master node can't register, one of the pods endlessly loops:

  • docker start kubelet
    Error response from daemon: <"message":"No such container: kubelet">
    Error: failed to start containers: kubelet
  • sleep 2

WARNING: 2019/07/13 10:19:35 Failed to dial 0.0.0.0:2379: connection error: desc = "transport: authentication handshake failed: remote error: tls: bad certificate" please retry.

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Slamdev commented Jul 13, 2019

when k8s 1.14 is used, this error appears in etcd logs:

Superxor commented Jul 24, 2019

can someone please check this? its a show-stopper

its clearly an issue with rancher: tls: bad certificate
I can reproduce it every time

Superxor commented Jul 24, 2019

Superseb commented Jul 24, 2019

The error shown usually indicates nodes being re-used and data is left behind which clashes with the newly generated data.

If its reproducible every time, please provide exact steps that you've taken so I can use that to reproduce on my end (see https://rancher.com/docs/rancher/v2.x/en/contributing/#bugs-issues-or-questions. Adding a etcd + controlplane node in a custom cluster (1.13 + flannel) does not reproduce.

Superxor commented Jul 24, 2019 •

@superseb I suspect the issue lies with the rancher-master. The etcd node is a brand new fresh VM with fresh hostname (because of the famous hostname issue. when is that ever going to be fixed?).

I tried this 4-5 times now, making sure its always a new VM with new disk and new different hostname

  1. Create new cluster
  2. spawn new VM/node
  3. run docker command.
  4. see etcd pod error about tls cert failure

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
docker version
Client:
Version: 18.09.7
API version: 1.39
Go version: go1.10.8
Git commit: 2d0083d
Built: Thu Jun 27 17:56:23 2019
OS/Arch: linux/amd64
Experimental: false

Superseb commented Jul 24, 2019

When did it start to happen (as it doesnt happen on a fresh 2.2.4 Rancher)? What is in the log of the rancher container (possible leads to why its failing)

Superxor commented Jul 24, 2019 •

I dont see anything on the rancher master, nor in the other pods

2019/07/24 09:12:29 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.60:44214: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 09:12:29 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.72:49762: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 09:12:30 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-q89w5:m-4c0602df0d65]
2019/07/24 09:12:30 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-q89w5:m-e5f8240f1893]
2019/07/24 09:12:30 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-623b23917cdf]
2019/07/24 09:12:30 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-f48ee2daad85]
2019/07/24 09:12:32 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-q89w5:m-b0676695ae93]
2019/07/24 09:12:32 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-25bd4ee7511c]
2019/07/24 09:12:33 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-a885899d4c85]
2019/07/24 09:12:34 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-2b5b7779d339]
2019/07/24 09:12:36 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.26:39580: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 09:12:36 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-e81840c53f86]

same time on the etcd pod:

2019-07-24 09:12:22.726490 W | auth: simple token is not cryptographically signed
2019-07-24 09:12:22.730662 I | etcdserver: starting server. [version: 3.2.24, cluster version: to_be_decided]
2019-07-24 09:12:22.731466 I | etcdserver/membership: added member fd1bb75040a79e2d [https://10.3.1.20:2380] to cluster 3bf383ae9c8f9b68
2019-07-24 09:12:22.731580 N | etcdserver/membership: set the initial cluster version to 3.2
2019-07-24 09:12:22.731638 I | etcdserver/api: enabled capabilities for version 3.2
2019-07-24 09:12:22.732407 I | embed: ClientTLS: cert = /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-etcd-10-3-1-20.pem, key = /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-etcd-10-3-1-20-key.pem, ca = , trusted-ca = /etc/kubernetes/ssl/kube-ca.pem, client-cert-auth = true
2019-07-24 09:12:30.221083 I | raft: fd1bb75040a79e2d is starting a new election at term 2
2019-07-24 09:12:30.221215 I | raft: fd1bb75040a79e2d became candidate at term 3
2019-07-24 09:12:30.221258 I | raft: fd1bb75040a79e2d received MsgVoteResp from fd1bb75040a79e2d at term 3
2019-07-24 09:12:30.221306 I | raft: fd1bb75040a79e2d became leader at term 3
2019-07-24 09:12:30.221323 I | raft: raft.node: fd1bb75040a79e2d elected leader fd1bb75040a79e2d at term 3
2019-07-24 09:12:30.221963 I | etcdserver: published to cluster 3bf383ae9c8f9b68
2019-07-24 09:12:30.222173 I | embed: ready to serve client requests
2019-07-24 09:12:30.223095 I | embed: serving client requests on [::]:2379
WARNING: 2019/07/24 09:12:30 Failed to dial 0.0.0.0:2379: connection error: desc = "transport: authentication handshake failed: remote error: tls: bad certificate" please retry.

Superxor commented Jul 24, 2019

@superseb Where are the certs coming from? I assume the issue is the certs provided by the rancher master? Maybe because we started out with 2.1 or something and upgrades did not fix some issue with them. Would explain why a fresh 2.4 setup does not have this problem.

Superseb commented Jul 24, 2019

When you create a new cluster and add the node, rancher starts provisioning the cluster. Logging from this would be helpful as it will show what part of the provisioning process succeeds and where it fails.

Also agent logs would help as I see connections to Rancher dropping (from the new node in the new cluster and possibly from other nodes in other clusters)

Superxor commented Jul 24, 2019 •

rancher master logs during cluster creation and node adding (I removed a few i/o timeout and warning lines that are unrelated, was too much log spam)

2019/07/24 11:45:32 [INFO] Provisioning cluster [c-8gf44]
2019/07/24 11:45:32 [INFO] Creating cluster [c-8gf44]
2019/07/24 11:45:35 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-8gf44:m-91f491207258]
2019/07/24 11:45:35 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-3057e8ce2de9]
2019/07/24 11:45:36 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.86:37826: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:37 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-4b59508bd6b8]
2019/07/24 11:45:37 [INFO] kontainerdriver rancherkubernetesengine listening on address 127.0.0.1:10800
2019/07/24 11:45:37 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Initiating Kubernetes cluster
2019/07/24 11:45:37 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [dialer] Setup tunnel for host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:37 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [state] Pulling image [rancher/rke-tools:v0.1.28] on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:42 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.37:43978: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:42 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-daaf4c2d51eb]
2019/07/24 11:45:42 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [state] Successfully pulled image [rancher/rke-tools:v0.1.28] on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:43 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.63:41068: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:43 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-41c1a245fd95]
2019/07/24 11:45:44 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [state] Successfully started [cluster-state-deployer] container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:44 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-1afe65447b6f]
2019/07/24 11:45:44 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.60:51806: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:44 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Generating CA kubernetes certificates
2019/07/24 11:45:44 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.42:37558: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:44 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Generating Kubernetes API server aggregation layer requestheader client CA certificates
2019/07/24 11:45:44 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-30da5bbfa251]
2019/07/24 11:45:45 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Generating Kube Scheduler certificates
2019/07/24 11:45:45 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Generating Kube Proxy certificates
2019/07/24 11:45:45 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-5fa522286aa8]
2019/07/24 11:45:45 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Generating Node certificate
2019/07/24 11:45:45 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Generating Kubernetes API server certificates
2019/07/24 11:45:45 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-fa0b42cd127d]
2019/07/24 11:45:45 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.119:34756: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:46 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Generating admin certificates and kubeconfig
2019/07/24 11:45:46 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Generating Kubernetes API server proxy client certificates
2019/07/24 11:45:47 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.83:60424: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:47 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Generating etcd-10.3.1.20 certificate and key
2019/07/24 11:45:47 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Generating Kube Controller certificates
2019/07/24 11:45:47 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-q89w5:m-ad044186556d]
2019/07/24 11:45:47 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Successfully Deployed state file at [management-state/rke/rke-119787230/cluster.rkestate]
2019/07/24 11:45:48 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Building Kubernetes cluster
2019/07/24 11:45:48 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [dialer] Setup tunnel for host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:48 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Deploying port listener containers
2019/07/24 11:45:48 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.62:43140: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:48 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Successfully started [rke-etcd-port-listener] container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:49 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.88:49832: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:49 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Successfully started [rke-cp-port-listener] container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:49 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Port listener containers deployed successfully
2019/07/24 11:45:49 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Running control plane -> etcd port checks
2019/07/24 11:45:50 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-132e9f7d86bc]
2019/07/24 11:45:50 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-q89w5:m-b0676695ae93]
2019/07/24 11:45:50 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-623b23917cdf]
2019/07/24 11:45:50 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Successfully started [rke-port-checker] container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:50 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Running control plane -> worker port checks
2019/07/24 11:45:51 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.91:44942: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:51 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Successfully started [rke-port-checker] container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019-07-24 11:45:51.343530 I | mvcc: store.index: compact 34577767
2019/07/24 11:45:51 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.38:35090: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:51 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Running workers -> control plane port checks
2019-07-24 11:45:51.490473 I | mvcc: finished scheduled compaction at 34577767 (took 136.99168ms)
2019/07/24 11:45:51 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Skipping kubeapi port check
2019/07/24 11:45:51 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Removing port listener containers
2019/07/24 11:45:51 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.58:57148: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:51 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.24:37620: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:51 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [remove/rke-etcd-port-listener] Successfully removed container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:52 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.98:57630: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:45:52 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [remove/rke-cp-port-listener] Successfully removed container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:52 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [network] Port listener containers removed successfully
2019/07/24 11:45:52 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Deploying kubernetes certificates to Cluster nodes

2019/07/24 11:45:58 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [reconcile] Rebuilding and updating local kube config
I0724 11:45:58.076641 7 http.go:110] HTTP2 has been explicitly disabled
2019/07/24 11:45:58 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Successfully Deployed local admin kubeconfig at [management-state/rke/rke-119787230/kube_config_cluster.yml]
2019/07/24 11:45:58 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-471f71f8e09b]
2019/07/24 11:45:58 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [certificates] Successfully deployed kubernetes certificates to Cluster nodes
2019/07/24 11:45:58 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [file-deploy] Deploying file [/etc/kubernetes/kube-api-authn-webhook.yaml] to node [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:59 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Successfully started [file-deployer] container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:59 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Waiting for [file-deployer] container to exit on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:59 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Waiting for [file-deployer] container to exit on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:59 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Container [file-deployer] is still running on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:45:59 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-q89w5:m-4c0602df0d65]
2019/07/24 11:46:00 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Waiting for [file-deployer] container to exit on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:46:00 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [remove/file-deployer] Successfully removed container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:46:00 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [/etc/kubernetes/kube-api-authn-webhook.yaml] Successfully deployed authentication webhook config Cluster nodes
2019/07/24 11:46:00 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [reconcile] Reconciling cluster state
2019/07/24 11:46:00 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [reconcile] This is newly generated cluster
2019/07/24 11:46:00 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Pre-pulling kubernetes images
2019/07/24 11:46:00 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [pre-deploy] Pulling image [rancher/hyperkube:v1.13.5-rancher1] on host [10.3.1.20]

2019/07/24 11:46:20 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [pre-deploy] Successfully pulled image [rancher/hyperkube:v1.13.5-rancher1] on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:46:20 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: Kubernetes images pulled successfully
2019/07/24 11:46:20 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [etcd] Building up etcd plane..
2019/07/24 11:46:20 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [etcd] Pulling image [rancher/coreos-etcd:v3.2.24-rancher1] on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:46:20 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.122:41248: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:46:20 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-f48ee2daad85]
2019/07/24 11:46:23 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [etcd] Successfully pulled image [rancher/coreos-etcd:v3.2.24-rancher1] on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:46:24 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-471f71f8e09b]
2019/07/24 11:46:25 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-132e9f7d86bc]
2019/07/24 11:46:25 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-q89w5:m-4c0602df0d65]
2019/07/24 11:46:26 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [etcd] Successfully started [etcd] container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:46:26 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.124:57546: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:46:26 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [etcd] Successfully started [rke-log-linker] container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:46:26 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-q89w5:m-10f33b2daa15]
2019/07/24 11:46:26 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.43:56516: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:46:27 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [remove/rke-log-linker] Successfully removed container on host [10.3.1.20]
2019/07/24 11:46:27 [INFO] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [etcd] Successfully started etcd plane.. Checking etcd cluster health

2019/07/24 11:46:40 [INFO] error in remotedialer server [400]: read tcp 172.17.0.3:443->10.3.1.119:37006: i/o timeout
2019/07/24 11:46:41 [INFO] Handling backend connection request [c-5q2fz:m-623b23917cdf]
2019/07/24 11:46:42 [ERROR] cluster [c-8gf44] provisioning: [etcd] Failed to bring up Etcd Plane: [etcd] Etcd Cluster is not healthy
2019/07/24 11:46:42 [INFO] kontainerdriver rancherkubernetesengine stopped
2019/07/24 11:46:42 [ERROR] ClusterController c-8gf44 [cluster-provisioner-controller] failed with : [etcd] Failed to bring up Etcd Plane: [etcd] Etcd Cluster is not healthy

Agent pods only show this:

INFO: Using resolv.conf: nameserver 10.3.3.254
INFO: https://rxxxxx/ping is accessible
INFO: rxxxx resolves to 10.3.1.1
time="2019-07-24T11:45:34Z" level=info msg="Rancher agent version v2.2.4 is starting"
time="2019-07-24T11:45:34Z" level=info msg="Option customConfig=map[address:10.3.1.20 internalAddress: roles:[] label:map[]]"
time="2019-07-24T11:45:34Z" level=info msg="Option etcd=false"
time="2019-07-24T11:45:34Z" level=info msg="Option controlPlane=false"
time="2019-07-24T11:45:34Z" level=info msg="Option worker=false"
time="2019-07-24T11:45:34Z" level=info msg="Option requestedHostname=slamdev-master-t14-20"
time="2019-07-24T11:45:34Z" level=info msg="Listening on /tmp/log.sock"
time="2019-07-24T11:45:34Z" level=info msg="Connecting to wss://rancher.adnz.co/v3/connect with token h9vt6wmf6kwv6s7m9qm257gwx8bv5wv5b8zq5qfs984mvmtk976lhw"
time="2019-07-24T11:45:34Z" level=info msg="Connecting to proxy" url="wss://rxxxxxxo/v3/connect"
time="2019-07-24T11:45:34Z" level=info msg="Starting plan monitor"

Superxor commented Jul 25, 2019

@superseb same issue on 2.2.6 master and 2.2.6 agent. This is 100% related to rancher upgrades from 2.1 or 2.2

2019-07-25 09:11:20.258357 N | etcdserver/membership: set the initial cluster version to 3.2
2019-07-25 09:11:20.258443 I | etcdserver/api: enabled capabilities for version 3.2
WARNING: 2019/07/25 09:11:20 Failed to dial 0.0.0.0:2379: connection error: desc = "transport: authentication handshake failed: remote error: tls: bad certificate" please retry.


3A.7E: Exercises

This standard of testing was chosen due to three criteria that were chosen:

Ability to ship via parcel delivery service

Availability of testing lab and machines

Fast and thorough testing procedure that is easy to follow

ISTA-6-FedEx-A was one of the very few standards that fit the package testing criteria completely. The International Safe Transit Association primarily, ISTA for short, primarily focuses on transport packaging. Due to this focus, ISTA standards deemed very easy to attain and follow when compared to ASTM. ASTM procedures as based upon a standards testing protocol, which is viable for companies that have already created and implemented many products that go out to consumers in their past and test according to previous data and results. In the case of the Brightlife wall organizer, it is more in common with a brand new start up company, that still have yet to prove whether or not its product will grow into a self sustained company in the future. Even though ASTM provides many areas of testing that can significantly help with designing an appropriate package, it lacks a simplified way of testing is the company doesn't know too much of its distribution environment. ISTA, on the other hand, offers many quick reference testing guides for specific product types and distribution environments. Due to this ability of quick and easy referencing, ISTA was picked as the appropriate testing guidelines for the project. ISTA provides a simple to use distribution chart that applies to certain package types. After creating a brief analysis of Brightlifes distribution environment, it was found that it would be in the Various distribution type category, under individual packages. According to ISTA-6, this falls under ISTA members performance tests, which are test protocols created by ISTA members or by ISTA in cooperation with a member company to meet certain applications. These tests can be original or modified versions of other ISTA procedures but will ultimately reviewed by the ISTA Testing Council. Under the 6 Series, there are three main testing procedures, 6-FEDEX-A, 6-FEDEX-B and 6-SAMSCLUB. The product and package that will be tested is less that 150 lb, which means it will fall under the 6-FEDEX-A. After reviewing this testing standard, it was confirmed that the nearest Lab testing facility (Cal Poly Packaging Lab) does contain a drop tester, compression tester and random vibration tester. Since ISTA-6-FEDEX-A meet the requirements of easy access and understanding, it was also easy to confirm that the machines needed are extremely near by. This means that Brightlife will have the ability to work closely and effectively with the Cal Poly lab. Also, this testing procedure is very thorough in terms of providing appropriate testing information and testing for a varied distribution environment, which fits in the first criteria of testing for an environment that will require shipping of a parcel.

Standards that were not chosen:

ISTA 1A, 1C, 1G, 2A, 4AB - Initially, doing a test that included any distribution method was ideal. If the package was created to withstand almost any environment this will allow for product to be be shipped in any method, to almost any location in any type of environment, such as warehouse, train, airplane etc. Due to time and resources, designing a package for this type of environment will be excessive because the product will not be created in mass amounts of numbers and will not see the see the retail scene until the product proves itself a success. At this point, there is no need to test for atmospheric conditioning because this product will most not be stored in a warehouse for many weeks or months.

ISTA 3A, 7E - This test which is intended for small parcel delivery was a good candidate for the package testing. It includes atmospheric conditioning, shock, and random vibration testing. It also includes a section on Thermal Performance testing for insulated containers but this part of the testing is almost irrelevant at this point. Even though this test can be helpful, the Cal Poly lab doesn't seem to have the appropriate equipment available for testing during these next few weeks, which are crucial to the project.

ISTA 3B - This type of testing also requires the use of atmospheric conditioning with shock, impact, random vibration with topload, and tip/tip over testing. Out of the three procedures, this ones relates the most to the final without the impact and conditioning part. Because this requires conditioning, it will also be hard to do with the the equipment that is not available at the time for use.

After examining the possible distribution environment and cost analysis of the product, Assurance Level of I would be the best way to treat this testing procedure. The Brightlife wall organizer will be handmade with high quality materials and processes methods, but will also contain glass. Glass is very prone to shock and impact damage due to its fragility. Since this product will not be shipped in applet loads or multiples per box, it is imperative that every single product will make it to the end customer without any damage.

Further analysis shows that there is no need to change the test procedure because the product is in a regular form. If it was flat or elongated, there would probably be more alterations to the testing procedure.

In order for a package to be successful, the package must not be damaged after testing.

Product Pass or Fail: The product must not show any obvious signs of damage, such as broken mirror, broken hinges and popped out backings or cracks. Other inspections will include outer visible scuffing no bigger than a the width of a quarter. Minor dust particles or unrelated shipping scuffing will not be used as a fail criterion.

Primary Package Pass or Fail: The package must not open or deform in testing. Indentations to corners and edges are expected, but a deformation in more 2.9% in length width or height will be considered a fail for the package.

Secondary package: Pass or Fail: The package must not open or deform extensively in the test. Indentations and impacts are expected on corners and edges but deformation must not pass 2.9% in lengths on any side measured.

ISTA-6-FEDEX-A: Testing product for regular packaged products weighing up to 150lbs.

Cal Poly Testing Laboratory

Testing Procedure: ISTA-6-FEDEX-A for Other Items under Regular shipping containers.


Impact of measures to support rough sleepers

The Government&rsquos &lsquoEveryone In&rsquo initiative has been credited with protecting rough sleepers and saving lives during the Covid-19 emergency.

On 18 April 2020 the Government reported that in England over 90% of rough sleepers (more than 5,400) known to local authorities at the beginning of the crisis had been offered accommodation as a result of &lsquoEveryone In&rsquo.

By November 2020, 9,866 people were in emergency accommodation and 23,273 people had moved on into settled accommodation or supported housing.

Homelessness organisations report that bringing everyone in has given them the opportunity to engage with and support many people who had previously been hard to reach, helping them to move on from rough sleeping. However, they also report that the flow of new rough sleepers onto the streets has continued throughout the pandemic and they have experienced increased demand for their services.

According to the National Audit Offfice, since June 2020 MHCLG has collected data on a weekly basis from local authorities which appears to confirm an upward trend in numbers of rough sleepers. The data was gathered at speed and has not been independently validated or published. Local Government Association (LGA) discussions with councils suggest a varying picture across the country, with levels of rough sleeping in some areas much reduced from the start of the pandemic, whilst in other areas levels remain the same or have increased.


SEC 3. Building your own containerised PKI (root CA) with Linux and Docker to simplify and secure network automation

You know our passion to network automation. We truly believe, that this is the only sustainable way for the network development and operation. In the same time, one the key goals of the automation is to make your network secure and safe. Therefore, the security of the automation and communication channels used by automation is very important. So today we’ll take a look how to build

Can automation make your network better?

Automation is the key component of the perpetual engine of your network development and operation. It allows you to run the network quick, stable, and safe. And we are willing you to benefit as much as you can from that.

We have created a new training, which is focused only on the Nornir and you can use it for the network (and not only) automation. It is an organic extension of our network automation training, which assumes you are already OK with Python and looking to learn new things, which can even more improve your automation skills to give you possibility to become the most efficient Engineer, who can automate networks and whole IT infrastructure.

Training includes the integration of Python/Nornir with NetBox, configuration and validation of Cisco, Nokia, Arista, Cumulus Linux and CentOS Linux devices with CLI, NETCONF, gNMI, templating techniques with Jinja2 and many more. In the same way as the original one, it is based on the real experience and real use cases, which will give you insights how to apply them for your networks and IT even during the training. Secure your future with our network automation training.

Brief description

IT Security threats as well as the security measures to mitigate them exist as long as the whole IT industry. All the aspects of the security in regards to networking are landing within the CIA framework:

  • C – Confidentiality – the key focus here is to make sure that the sensitive information destined to a particular endpoint (person, application, network element) will be read only by that endpoint. If that is intercepted by the 3rd party, he/she/it shall not be able to decipher the content and steal the information.
  • I – Integrity – the key focus here is to make sure that the sensitive information destined to the endpoint comes unaltered. It means that even if intercepted, the information cannot be changed and sent further unnoticeable.
  • A – Availability – the key here is to make sure that the information is actually available for the endpoint. Among others that involves build and operation of the secure communication channels with authentication and encryption.

When we deal with the network automation, we extensively rely on the communication channels, as we need to convey the corresponding instructions to the network functions when we want to change their configuration or request the some operational info, when the network elements respond to us back and, for sure, when we have asynchronous communication channels, such as streaming telemetry operation. In the following table you may see the mapping of all the automation approaches to the transport protocols and their security options:

Automation approachTransport protocolSecurity (Authentication) Security (Encryption)
SSH/CLISSHcredentials,
ssh keys
built-in
NETCONF/YANGSSHcredentials,
ssh keys
built-in
RESTCONF/YANG
or REST API
HTTPcredentials,
token,
SSL certificate
with SSL certificate
gNMI/YANGGRPCcredentials,
SSL certificate
with SSL certificate

As you can see, SSL certificates plays crucial role in providing security in REST API/RESTCONF and gNMI environments. As we are promoting the approach to manage the network elements with gNMI and developing the corresponding Python library for that, we want to make the communication channel for it absolutely secure. In regards to the SSL certificates for the REST API and GNMI, there are two possible options how you can handle them:

  • Only for the encryption purposes. In this case you can skip the certification validation part and trust it without any check. That is widely used in labs and development, but not good at all for production.
  • Both for the authentication and encryption purpose. This would require you to have a proper PKI (public key infrastructure) setup so that, which will allow you to perform the validation of the endpoints and performing the authentication based on the certificates. This is the most secure and recommended way of having your production (and, to be frank, lab as well).

Simplifying the things, the PKI consists of the two major components:

  • CA (Certificate Authority) is a core component which has its own certificate and key, which is used to create the certificates for all the devices/applications in your network and. There might be several levels of the hierarchy depending on the complexity of your network: root CA, sub-root CA, and signing CA. The CA’s certificate shall be installed on all your endpoints, as it will be used as a trust point to validate the other endpoints certificates. However, they CA’s key is super secret and it shall stay only on CA, be protected with the passphrase and not be distributed anywhere.
  • Endpoints are the devices/applications, which are communicating to each other. They generate their own private keys, which they use to create the certificate signing requests (CSR), which then converted by the CA into the certificates (in .CRT or .PEM format) using the CA’s certificate/key pair.

Well, introduction was not that brief, but it gives you some context of the aspect of the security, we are willing to focus in regards of the network automation.

Usage

Today we’ll create a combined root/signing CA, which will be used in our lab as a central point for our PKI infrastructure. Our lab has the following topology:

One of the important points about the the root CA, it shall not be online all the time, as it isn’t involved in the active process of the validation. In fact, it is recommended to keep that offline all time and bring it up only when you need to sign a new certificate for your endpoints. Therefore, the micro services architecture relying on Docker containers perfectly matches this usage model.

Finally we can create, our task list for today’s lab:

  1. Create a Docker container with Alpine Linux having openssl onboard.
  2. Create the private root CA key in that container. This file stay local inside the container.
  3. Create the root CA certificate, which will be used for fulfilling the certificate signing requests (CSR) from the endpoints and act as a trust point for them. This file shall be copied on all your endpoints and be added as a trusted certificate in the corresponding channels, tools, etc.
  4. Make sure the root CA key and certificate are persistent across the container restarts.

Configuration

Before we start, make sure you have the Docker up and running:

Learn more about the Docker, how to install and manage it at our Network Automation Training

#1. Building the Docker container with Alpine Linux to act as root CA

The Alpine Linux is the most tiny full-feature Linux: its full image is just about the 6 MB big. That makes it a perfect candidate to deploy all sort of the infrastructure services. However, such a size comes on the cost: there are no extra packages installed and you need to install everything you might need to use. Therefore, we’d need to instal the openssl package (and all the dependencies it would resolve). The Docker file for our container with root CA will look like as follows:

So what we do in that file is:

  • Take the latest Alpine image.
  • Update the packages and install openssl on it.
  • Create the following directories:
    • /opt/rootca/local to store the key and certificate of the root CA.
    • /opt/rootca/input to store the CSRs.
    • /opt/rootca/output, which will store the certificates created based on CSRs.

    As you might know, by default containers are living only for the duration they perform some activity. Despite in generally it is desired approach, we’d like to be able to bring container up when we need to sign the certification requests and shutdown, when we don’t need that (however, later we could automate this process as well).

    To implement this behaviour, we need to make the container thinking that it is super busy all the time. So, we create the basic shell script to make the container busy:

    This script do nothing but keeps the container up all the time until you manually shut it down yourself.

    Finally, we create a simple Docker compose file to bring our container with root CA up:

    In this file we instruct the docker-compose tool to create the container out of the local Docker file and launch our busy script upon the container instantiation. Also we create a local volume st, which is a storage persistent across reboots and map the /opt/rootca directory to that, so that we can store all our certificate info.

    So brining all together, we have the following files in the directory:

    Ok, so at this stage now we are ready to bring our root CA and start our own local PKI business. Looks not that complicated, isn’t it? Let’s do that.

    First of all, we need to build our container. The docker-compose can help us with that as:

    You can verify created image using sudo docker image inspect crootca_crootca command.

    Now we can bring the container up using the same docker-compose, but this time with different flags:

    Once the container is created, you can check if that is up and running:

    Hurray! So now we can jump inside and start actually working with PKI:

    #2. Creating the private root CA key

    Once the infrastructure (the Docker container running Alpine Linux with OpenSSL installed) is setup, we can proceed with the root CA tasks. The first step is to generate the root CA private key, which we will store in the /opt/rootca/local directory:

    Once you run this command, you will be asked to type in the passphrase. Keep that secret and don’t skip this phase in the favour of full blown automation. That is the case, where we recommend you to keep the password entered manually.

    That step was easy, wasn’t it?

    #3. Creating the public root CA certiciate

    The next step is not much more complicated, to be honest. You need to create the root CA public certificate, which later shall be installed on all your endpoints (per our lab topology: two different Linux and two network operating systems). So to create the certificate, we do that as follows:

    Our root CA is set up and we need just validate it.

    #4. Validating the setup

    First thing first, you can check the content of the created certificate:

    As you can see, all the details we’ve passed as the -subj argument earlier were properly processed and you can see them in the output. As said earlier, later this file will be distributed to all four our endpoints.

    The last point we need to check is that the certificate and key are persistent across reboots. So, we shut our container down:

    Check that it is down indeed:

    Check the certificate again to make sure it exists and has proper content:

    That’s it, the setup of the root CA containerised with Docker and based on Alpine Linux and OpenSSL is completed. You can ask us: what is the difference to a standard self-signed certificate? It is indeed a self signed certificate, but once we install it on other devices using it as trusted certificate and sign the CSRs, the PKI will start working.

    #5. Ideas for automation

    We can add the process of the key and certificate creation as part of the container build. That will remove the steps to be taken manually. However, that may create some inconvenience, as any change of the Docker file done earlier than certificate generation will reflect into the certificate regeneration, which is not what we are willing to have.

    Join our network automation training to get more in-depth knowledge about Docker containers and how they can help you in the network automation.

    GitHub repository

    Lessons learned

    The topics of the network security is often skipped by the network engineers. There are numerous reasons for that, such as desire to do things quicker and focus on the core technologies. However, all the technologies, which are implemented or are to be implemented in the production environment, must be hardened and secured as much as possible. Therefore, we need to consider network security in all the aspects we deal with the network automation. And it is better to learn that lessons as early as possible.

    Conclusion

    Today you have seen how to create your root CA. We believe you realised that the process is pretty straightforward. This is however just the first step. In the following article we’ll show how to further rely on this infrastructure in your network. Take care and good bye.

    Support us

    Support new interop and automation articles at karneliuk.com
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    If you have further questions or you need help with your networks, I’m happy to assist you, just send me message. Also don’t forget to share the article on your social media, if you like it.


    3A.7E: Exercises

    Package Testing Preliminary Report:

    Testing Standard ISTA-6-FEDEX-A:

    After the initial package design was completed, the package and product must now be tested according to ISTA-6-FedEx-A Standards. FedEx testing for packaged products relies on a series of pre-shipment tests that simulate that simulate air and ground shipping environments in cooperation with ISATA. By using drop, compression and vibration tests, this testing procedure will be able to evaluate the integrity of a package classified as a regular package and that weights up 150lbs. After following a strict sequence of testing, the packaged will be opened up at the end and be inspected for damage. If at any point in the testing, there is notice of obvious damage, it will be stopped and considered a fail. ISTA-6 will regard the following tests:

    Random Vibration Test - US

    This standard of testing was chosen due to three criteria that were chosen:

    Ability to ship via parcel delivery service

    Availability of testing lab and machines

    Fast and thorough testing procedure that is easy to follow

    ISTA-6-FedEx-A was one of the very few standards that fit the package testing criteria completely. The International Safe Transit Association primarily, ISTA for short, primarily focuses on transport packaging. Due to this focus, ISTA standards deemed very easy to attain and follow when compared to ASTM. ASTM procedures as based upon a standards testing protocol, which is viable for companies that have already created and implemented many products that go out to consumers in their past and test according to previous data and results. In the case of the Brightlife wall organizer, it is more in common with a brand new start up company, that still have yet to prove whether or not its product will grow into a self sustained company in the future. Even though ASTM provides many areas of testing that can significantly help with designing an appropriate package, it lacks a simplified way of testing is the company doesn't know too much of its distribution environment. ISTA, on the other hand, offers many quick reference testing guides for specific product types and distribution environments. Due to this ability of quick and easy referencing, ISTA was picked as the appropriate testing guidelines for the project. ISTA provides a simple to use distribution chart that applies to certain package types. After creating a brief analysis of Brightlifes distribution environment, it was found that it would be in the Various distribution type category, under individual packages. According to ISTA-6, this falls under ISTA members performance tests, which are test protocols created by ISTA members or by ISTA in cooperation with a member company to meet certain applications. These tests can be original or modified versions of other ISTA procedures but will ultimately reviewed by the ISTA Testing Council. Under the 6 Series, there are three main testing procedures, 6-FEDEX-A, 6-FEDEX-B and 6-SAMSCLUB. The product and package that will be tested is less that 150 lb, which means it will fall under the 6-FEDEX-A. After reviewing this testing standard, it was confirmed that the nearest Lab testing facility (Cal Poly Packaging Lab) does contain a drop tester, compression tester and random vibration tester. Since ISTA-6-FEDEX-A meet the requirements of easy access and understanding, it was also easy to confirm that the machines needed are extremely near by. This means that Brightlife will have the ability to work closely and effectively with the Cal Poly lab. Also, this testing procedure is very thorough in terms of providing appropriate testing information and testing for a varied distribution environment, which fits in the first criteria of testing for an environment that will require shipping of a parcel.

    Standards that were not chosen:

    ISTA 1A, 1C, 1G, 2A, 4AB - Initially, doing a test that included any distribution method was ideal. If the package was created to withstand almost any environment this will allow for product to be be shipped in any method, to almost any location in any type of environment, such as warehouse, train, airplane etc. Due to time and resources, designing a package for this type of environment will be excessive because the product will not be created in mass amounts of numbers and will not see the see the retail scene until the product proves itself a success. At this point, there is no need to test for atmospheric conditioning because this product will most not be stored in a warehouse for many weeks or months.

    ISTA 3A, 7E - This test which is intended for small parcel delivery was a good candidate for the package testing. It includes atmospheric conditioning, shock, and random vibration testing. It also includes a section on Thermal Performance testing for insulated containers but this part of the testing is almost irrelevant at this point. Even though this test can be helpful, the Cal Poly lab doesn't seem to have the appropriate equipment available for testing during these next few weeks, which are crucial to the project.

    ISTA 3B - This type of testing also requires the use of atmospheric conditioning with shock, impact, random vibration with topload, and tip/tip over testing. Out of the three procedures, this ones relates the most to the final without the impact and conditioning part. Because this requires conditioning, it will also be hard to do with the the equipment that is not available at the time for use.

    After examining the possible distribution environment and cost analysis of the product, Assurance Level of I would be the best way to treat this testing procedure. The Brightlife wall organizer will be handmade with high quality materials and processes methods, but will also contain glass. Glass is very prone to shock and impact damage due to its fragility. Since this product will not be shipped in applet loads or multiples per box, it is imperative that every single product will make it to the end customer without any damage.

    Further analysis shows that there is no need to change the test procedure because the product is in a regular form. If it was flat or elongated, there would probably be more alterations to the testing procedure.

    In order for a package to be successful, the package must not be damaged after testing.

    Product Pass or Fail: The product must not show any obvious signs of damage, such as broken mirror, broken hinges and popped out backings or cracks. Other inspections will include outer visible scuffing no bigger than a the width of a quarter. Minor dust particles or unrelated shipping scuffing will not be used as a fail criterion.

    Primary Package Pass or Fail: The package must not open or deform in testing. Indentations to corners and edges are expected, but a deformation in more 2.9% in length width or height will be considered a fail for the package.

    Secondary package: Pass or Fail: The package must not open or deform extensively in the test. Indentations and impacts are expected on corners and edges but deformation must not pass 2.9% in lengths on any side measured.

    ISTA-6-FEDEX-A: Testing product for regular packaged products weighing up to 150lbs.

    Cal Poly Testing Laboratory

    Testing Procedure: ISTA-6-FEDEX-A for Other Items under Regular shipping containers.

    Package < 75lbs, drop height 30’’

    Shortest edge radiating from drop corner

    Flat on one of the smallest surfaces

    Flat on the opposite small face

    Flat on one of the medium faces

    Flat on the opposite medium face

    Flat on one of the largest faces

    Flat on the opposite large face

    244 lbs with product bearing some load

    stop force at 244, with 15% yield deflection stop deflection at 1”

    .5 inches per minute speed

    Random Vibration Test - US

    Program truck .52Grms profile 1 , Air 1.06Grms profile 2, Truck .52Grms profile 1.

    Set duration at 15 minutes for each sequence

    Orthographic Pictures of Package System :

    Package and Testing Schematics:

    Weight of Package - 1.8 lbs

    Weight of Product - 12.6 lbs

    Net weight of Package - 14.4 lbs

    Outer Dimensions of Package - 25.5” x 4.25” 14.25”

    Temperature: 72 degrees with 85% (outside) humidity

    Most Fragile Corner: 1, 2, 6

    Shortest edge radiating from the drop corner: 6, 2

    Medium edge radiating from the drop corner: 1, 6

    Longest edge radiating from the drop corner: 1, 2

    Flat on one of the smallest faces: 6

    Flat on the opposite small face: 5

    Flat on one of the medium faces: 2

    Flat on the opposite medium face: 4

    Flat on one of the largest faces: 3

    Flat on the opposite large face: 1

    Due to the dimensions of the product. the compression load will be set to 244 lbs. The product will also be bearing some of the load.The stop force will be set at 244 lbs with a 15% yield deflection.The test will also stop if it goes past 1” deflection. The platen will be lowered at .5” per minute.

    In the random vibration test, the product will be placed on the random vibration table with face 5 on the floor. The vibration test will have three profiles each lasting 15 minutes:

    Sequence 1 - Profile 1 - Truck at .52 Grms

    Sequence 2 - Prfile 2 - Air at 1.06 Grms

    Sequence 3 - Profile 1 - Truck at .52 Grms

    Cal Poly Package Performance Lab

    List of Figure and Tables:

    Figure - 1 ISTA - 6 FEDEX - A Requirements

    Figure - 3 Isometric Drawings

    Figure - 4 Drop Test Corner

    Figure - Drop Test Fracture

    Figure - 6 Drop Test Deformation Table

    Figure - 7 Drop Test Result

    Figure - 8 Bubble Wrap Solution

    Figure - 9 Palletization Results

    Figure - 10 Potential Palletization Results

    Figure - 11 Drop Test Table

    Figure - 12 Compression Table

    ISTA 6 - FedEx-A Testing Requirements:

    The ISTA - FedEx - A package testing procedure is a series of pre-shipment tests that mimic FedEx US air and ground shipping environments. By using real industry data, consumers can test packaging with reliable results. Using a drop, compression and vibration tests, ISTA 6 - FedEx - A testing will be able to evaluate the performance of a package system weighing up to 150 lbs. After the completion of the test, the package will be opened and checked for external and internal damage. If there is any obvious damaged during the testing procedure, further testing will not be allowed. This will result in the package failing. The following Procedure will be followed.


    Physical Description

    "Once you've spent a few years wadin' through the rivers o' human filth, fightin' Goblins under the mountains starts to sound pretty attractive." —Heinrich, Altdorf Rat Catcher [18b]

    The teeming city of Altdorf (dock view)

    When the Colleges of Magic were built in Altdorf, the area became slightly warped. This had the effect of making the city essentially unmappable [22b] [22c] , although it is rumoured that the Emperor and the Celestial College possess accurate maps. Instead, Altdorfers usually navigate using landmarks. [22i]

    The streets of Altdorf are furnished with a rarity in the Old World: streetlamps. [22f]

    Since space is at a premium within Altdorf’s city walls, houses are typically four to seven storeys [57] —taller than houses in most Imperial cities. [27f] They are built up next to each other, so there are no side windows. Typical houses will contain a shop on the ground floor, a yard in the back, and a residential area in the storeys above. The quality of the houses varies. [22g] Some are old and crumbling, others newly constructed. [41f] There are dozens of Sigmarite shrines and chapels thorughout the city. [41g]

    There were defensive walls in Altdorf even before the time of Sigmar. [21a] Later, between 300 and 500 IC, a new set of walls were built. During Sigismund the Conqueror’s reign, work was started on making new stone walls. However, he died before this project was completed. [61] The walls were breached when the von Carsteins besieged the city, but were rebuilt by the able-bodied men of the city shortly afterward. [22b] The current walls are dwarf-built. [41f] Today, Altdorf's walls are famously strong. [31c] [33a] They're fortified with cannons and mortars. [41h] They're high and up to fifteen feet thick. They are also painted white. [33a]

    The city gates of Altdorf are guarded, [61] and a toll is levied, [22e] although certain groups, such as members of the Reiksguard, have an exemption. [61] The gates close at night. [32c] There are gaps in the city walls through which the rivers Reik and Talabec flow. However, if necessary, giant chains can be strung across the river to prevent waterborne invasion. [57]

    The River Reik runs through Altdorf. It is an important trade route in and out of the city [6a] and is often crammed with boats. [41h] [57] However, it also smells very bad. [61] In Altdorf, multiple bridges cross the Reik, some of which are equipped with steam powered drawing mechanisms designed by the college of engineers. [7f]

    Altdorf has some underground sewers, to remove the smell of human waste. [22h] The sewer system is convoluted, having been built over many generations. [44d] The sewers are generally tall enough for a dwarf or halfling to walk through without bending over. Some of these are effective, but others have been blocked. Of course, operational sewers are more likely to be located in wealthy neighborhoods. [22h]

    Altdorf Fog

    Altdorf is known for its episodes of deep fog. Fog usually either rises from the Reik or descends from the Grey Mountains [41l] and settles in the bowl of the city. [64e] Fog's prevalence may also have to do with the presence of the Grey College. [45f] Most mornings at least a little foggy, but the fog is especially severe in the spring and autumn. [74c]

    Fog greatly alters the character of the city. Riots are particularly common following fog. [45f] Crime and intrigue become even more prevalent. Typical measures taken during a fog include the placement of lanterns along the riverfront and augmenting the city watch with a plotoon of Imperial Militia. Watchmen light a fog fire in the Konigsplatz, and the Cult of Sigmar opens the refectory of the Holy Temple to those who have been stranded away from home. [64e]


    Watch the video: Schostakowitsch: 7. Sinfonie Leningrader hr-Sinfonieorchester Klaus Mäkelä (August 2022).