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Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born in Brunswick, Germany. From humble family but with the encouragement of his mother obtained brilliance in his career. Studying in his hometown, one day when the teacher told the students to add numbers from 1 to 100, Gauss immediately found the answer - 5050 - seemingly without calculation. It is assumed that he had already discovered the formula of a sum of an arithmetic progression.
Gauss went to Gottingen with the financial aid of the Duke of Brunswick, deciding on mathematics on March 30, 1796, when he became the first to build a regular seventeen-sided polygon with the aid of ruler and compass. Gauss received his doctorate in 1798 from the University of Helmstädt and his thesis was the demonstration of the "Fundamental Algebra Theorem", proving that every polynomial equation f (x) = 0 has at least one real or imagined root. in geometric considerations.
Gauss owes the graphical representation of complex numbers thinking of the real and imaginary parts as coordinates of a plane. His book 'Disquisitiones Arithmeticaé' (Arithmetic Research) is primarily responsible for the development and notations of Number Theory, presenting in it the notation b = c (mod a), for congruence relation, which is an equivalence relation. Gauss presents the law of quadratic reciprocity which he classifies as the "jewel of arithmetic" and demonstrating the theorem that every positive integer can be represented in one way only as the product of cousins once described mathematics as the queen of science and science. Arithmetic as the Queen of Mathematics At the beginning of the 19th century, he left Arithmetic to devote himself to astronomy, creating a method to follow the orbit of satellites, used until today, and this gave him in 1807 the position of director of the Göttingen observatory, where he spent 40 years.
His mathematical research continued in function theory and geometry applied to Newton's theory. In Geodesy, he invented the heliotrope, a device that transmits signals through reflected light, and in Electromagnetism, he invented the bifilar magnetometer and the electric telegraph. His only ambition was the progress of mathematics, so he fought until he became aware of the end of suffering from cardiac dilation. Gauss died at 78 and is considered the "prince of mathematics".